======================================================================== E P I C A l e r t ======================================================================== Volume 12.14 July 14, 2005 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Published by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) Washington, D.C. http://www.epic.org/alert/EPIC_Alert_12.14.html ======================================================================== Table of Contents ========================================================================  EPIC Urges FTC to Investigate Online Private Investigators  Privacy Problems Remain at Homeland Security Even With Restructuring  Banks, Sports Authority Target Anti-Telemarketing Laws  Congressional Committees Consider Patriot Act Reauthorization  Justice O'Connor Respected Privacy, Defended States' Rights  News in Brief  EPIC Bookstore: John Twelve Hawks's The Traveler  Upcoming Conferences and Events ========================================================================  EPIC Urges FTC to Investigate Online Private Investigators ======================================================================== EPIC urged the Federal Trade Commission to initiate an industry-wide investigation of online investigation services last week. In a complaint to the FTC, EPIC documented the practices of one online investigation site, bestpeoplesearch.com. That site advertises for sale personal information that is protected by federal privacy law, and normally cannot be obtained without violating the law. Specifically, the EPIC complaint highlighted the sale of telecommunications records and the ownership information of Postal Service and private mailboxes. Bestpeoplesearch.com offers for sale billing records of both wireless and landline telephone accounts, for $187 and $87, respectively. These billing records show all the calls placed and received and their duration. Under federal law, billing records are confidential and can only be disclosed under specific circumstances, such as when a court order is obtained. Nevertheless, bestpeoplesearch.com advertises the availability of these records, but cautions that they are for "your personal informational purpose only. These reports are NOT valid in a court of law." Postal Service and private mailbox ownership information is protected by federal regulations and can only be disclosed to government agencies, individuals attempting to serve legal process, or to an individual with a court order. Despite these protections, bestpeoplesearch.com offers for sale information on Postal Service box owners for $77, and private box owners for $97. As with the phone calling records, bestpeoplesearch.com makes suspicious representations concerning the sources and availability of the data: "Investigators work with postmasters all over the USA. It is up to the individual Postmaster whether they want work [sic] with the investigator..." EPIC's complaint notes that many other sites are advertising similar services to bestpeoplesearch.com. Some of these other sites offer the actual identity of people who use screen names on AOL, Match.com, Kiss.com, Lavalife, and Friendfinder.com. In addition to calling for an industry-wide investigation, EPIC urged the FTC to seek legislation to expand protections against pretexting, the practice of pretending to have a legitimate reason to access the account holder's information; and through access to consumers' online billing accounts. EPIC's Complaint to the FTC: http://www.epic.org/privacy/iei/ftccomplaint.html Washington Post article: http://www.epic.org/redirect/wpftc705.html Wall Street Journal article: http://online.wsj.com/article/0,,SB112077534843280100,00.html ========================================================================  Privacy Problems Remain at Homeland Security Even With Restructuring ======================================================================== Yesterday, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff announced a restructuring of the department and some of its programs. Two aspects of the plan are of significance to privacy rights: the failure to strengthen the authority of the Department of Homeland Security Privacy Office and the expansion of personal data gathered for US-VISIT. Homeland Security's Privacy Office's effectiveness in pursuing privacy complaints is lacking. The office has no authority to issue subpoenas and must depend on voluntary cooperation to conduct its investigations. This limitation has hampered the office's ability to identify and correct violations of federal privacy law. For example, a November 2003 email obtained by EPIC under the Freedom of Information Act shows the Privacy Office had difficulty gathering information for its investigation of the Transportation Security Administration's role in the transfer of JetBlue Airways passenger data to a Defense Department contractor. Noting that "information has not been forthcoming" in response to internal inquiries, Chief Privacy Officer Nuala O'Connor Kelly wrote, "we're getting better information from outside than we have from our own folks at this time." Several Democratic members of the House of Representatives criticized the omission of broader powers for the Privacy Office in Mr. Chertoff's plan. The members said in a statement that "[t]he Secretary should have asked Congress for new authority to permit the Privacy Officer to: (1) access all records deemed necessary; (2) undertake any privacy investigation that the Privacy Officer believes is appropriate; (3) subpoena documents from the private sector when necessary to fulfill statutory mandates; (4) obtain sworn testimony; and (5) take the same actions that the Department's Inspector General may take in order to obtain answers to questions and responsive documents required for investigatory work. To insulate the Privacy Officer from outside political pressure, the position should be granted a five-year term and should be allowed to submit reports directly to Congress." According to the statement, "[t]he Secretary's failure to request these new powers for the Privacy Officer was a mistake." Mr. Chertoff also announced that Homeland Security would expand the collection of biometric data from visitors entering the country through the US-VISIT program. From its inception in 2003, the US-VISIT program has used a two-fingerprint identification system, but Homeland Security now will begin collecting a full ten-fingerprint set from travelers. This expands the already vast amount of personal data accumulated by the program, including some data about U.S. citizens and legal permanent residents. This information includes complete name, date of birth, citizenship, sex, passport number and country of issuance, country of residence, United States visa number, date, place of issuance (where applicable), alien registration number (where applicable), address while in the United States, and such other information. Department of Homeland Security Press Release About Restructuring: http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/display?content=4598 Statement of Some Democratic Members of the House of Representatives in Response to the Department of Homeland Security Restructuring (pdf): http://www.epic.org/privacy/us-visit/dhs_review_071405.pdf E-mail from Chief Privacy Officer Nuala O'Connor Kelly obtained under the Freedom of Information Act (pdf): http://www.epic.org/privacy/airtravel/jetblue/kelly_email.pdf EPIC's Air Travel Privacy Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/airtravel/ July Spotlight on Surveillance About US-VISIT: http://www.epic.org/privacy/surveillance/spotlight/ EPIC's US-VISIT Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/us-visit/ ========================================================================  Banks, Sports Authority Target Anti-Telemarketing Laws ======================================================================== Major retailers, like the Sports Authority; telemarketing companies; and large banks have petitioned the Federal Communications Commission, urging the agency to "preempt," or supercede, anti-telemarketing laws in five states--Florida, New Jersey, Indiana, Wisconsin, and North Dakota. These five states do not recognize the "established business relationship" exception to the telemarketing Do-Not-Call Registry. This loophole allows companies to contact their current customers, even if they are on the Do-Not-Call Registry. If an individual makes any purchase or requests any information from a business, he or she has created an "established business relationship." In the case of purchases, the business may call the individual for the next 18 months; if the individual merely requested information, the business may call for 3 months. In the petitions, some of the groups, such as Sports Authority, admit that they aren't using standard telemarketing; instead they are using pre-recorded voice message telemarketing on their existing customers. In this marketing technique, a computer is programmed to call thousands of people and play a recorded message. Unlike live telemarketing, pre-recorded voice requires the Sports Authority and banks to use fewer resources, allowing them to initiate millions of calls a day. If the Federal Communications Commission preempts these five states, forcing them to recognize the federal "established business relationship" exception, the number of telemarketing calls will increase dramatically. EPIC and a coalition of groups are filing comments in opposition to the petitions. These comments argue that compliance with state telemarketing law is easier now than ever, and that the same technologies that telemarketers use to target solicitations could be used to comply with state privacy laws. Individuals are encouraged to file comments in support of state-level protections against telemarketing, and against "established business relationship" telemarketing calls unless the business first gives clear notice of the intent to telemarket and gains verifiable consent from the customer. EPIC's Telemarketing Preemption Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/telemarketing/preemptiveattack.html FCC Electronic Comment Filing System: http://www.epic.org/redirect/fccef0705.html Sports Authority Preemption Petition (requesting preemption of Florida law) (pdf): http://www.epic.org/privacy/telemarketing/sap.pdf Allied Preemption Petition (requesting preemption of all state laws) (pdf): http://www.epic.org/privacy/telemarketing/allied_petition.pdf FCC Request for Comments on the Sports Authority and Banks' Petitions: http://www.epic.org/redirect/fccsa0705.html FCC Request for Comments on the Allied Petition: http://www.epic.org/redirect/fccap0705.html ========================================================================  Congressional Committees Consider Patriot Act Reauthorization ======================================================================== This week the House Judiciary Committee will vote whether to renew key provisions of the Patriot Act that would otherwise expire this year. Among the key provisions are several that expand the use of secret search authority under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978. The FISA permits the government to pursue a search for "foreign intelligence" information below traditional Fourth Amendment standards. The determinations are made by a secret court, and traditional remedies for abuse, such as suppression, do not apply. Since passage of the Patriot Act, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of FISA powers. According to the Department of Justice's annual FISA reports, the number of FISA applications granted increased from 1,012 in 2000 to 1,754 in 2004. In 2003 and 2004, there were more FISA warrants issued than regular federal wiretap warrants, which follow a stringent legal standard. Prior to passage of the Patriot Act, this had never occurred. The final report of the 9/11 Commission recommended a two-part test for Patriot Act renewal. It said first that the burden of proof for renewal fell on the president to show that the various provisions materially enhance security. The Commission also said that there must be adequate supervision of such powers to ensure that civil liberties are protected. If the power is renewed, the Commission emphasized, there must be appropriate guidelines and oversight to prevent misuse. To date, there is little indication that the use of FISA authority has materially enhanced security or that adequate means of oversight for the expanded use of the 1978 law has been established. H.R. 3199, the USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:h.r.03199: House Judiciary Committee Markup of the USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005: http://judiciary.house.gov/markup.aspx?ID=103 EPIC's PATRIOT Sunset Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/usapatriot/sunset.html EPIC's Wiretap Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/wiretap EPIC's Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/fisa 9/11 Commission recommendations (pdf): http://www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/usapatriot/sec12.pdf ========================================================================  Justice O'Connor Respected Privacy, Defended States' Rights ======================================================================== Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, described by many as a critical swing vote on a closely divided Supreme Court, announced her retirement from the U.S. Supreme Court on July 1. She also should be remembered for her judicial independence. In a series of opinions -- concurrences and dissents, as well as decisions on behalf of the Court -- she raised concerns about police databases, opposed suspicionless drug testing statutes, defended innovative legislative efforts by the states, and supported "open government" laws. Justice O'Connor was the first female Supreme Court justice and a former majority leader in the Arizona Senate. Justice O'Connor was a proponent of the idea that states should serve as laboratories for new social and economic experiments. This idea, first contemplated by the Framers, was reiterated by Justice Louis Brandeis in 1932 and served as an influence for many of Justice O'Connor's decisions throughout the years. Consistent with these ideals, O'Connor delivered several unexpected opinions including the recent dissent in Gonzales v. Raich (2005). She disagreed with the majority's holding that Congress has the power to prohibit and prosecute the possession and use of marijuana for medical purposes, even in the states that permit such use. Throughout her opinions, Justice O'Connor also worked to uphold the principles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Whether the case was mandatory drug testing in schools or drug checkpoints in Indiana, Justice O'Connor wrote that suspicionless searches violated the Fourth Amendment. In Watchtower Bible v. Village of Stratton (2002), she voted to uphold the First Amendment's right to anonymous speech. Privacy Highlights of Justice O'Connor's Career: Justice O'Connor in concurrence, on technology and law enforcement: The police, of course, are entitled to enjoy the substantial advantages this technology confers. They may not, however, rely on it blindly. With the benefits of more efficient law enforcement mechanisms comes the burden of corresponding constitutional responsibilities. Arizona v. Evans (2005) Justice O'Connor in dissent, arguing against suspicionless drug testing in schools: T]he substantial consequences that can flow from a positive test, such as suspension from sports, are invariably - and quite reasonably - understood as punishment. The best proof that the District's testing program is to some extent accusatory can be found in James Acton's own explanation on the witness stand as to why he did not want to submit to drug testing: "Because I feel that they have no reason to think I was taking drugs." ä It is hard to think of a manner of explanation that resonates more intensely in our Fourth Amendment tradition than this. Vernonia School District v. Acton (1995) Justice O'Connor, writing for a plurality of the Court, on a reasonable expectation of privacy in the workplace: Given the societal expectations of privacy in one's place of work expressed in both Oliver and Mancusi, we reject the contention made by the Solicitor General and petitioners that public employees can never have a reasonable expectation of privacy in their place of work. Individuals do not lose Fourth Amendment rights merely because they work for the government instead of a private employer. O'Connor v. Ortega (1987) EPIC's Sandra Day O'Connor Legacy Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/justices/oconnor/ Watchtower Bible Oral Argument (O'Connor excerpt) (mp3): http://www.epic.org/privacy/justices/oconnor/argument.mp3 Supreme Court Web site: http://www.supremecourtus.gov/ ========================================================================  News in Brief ======================================================================== CA Data Broker Bill Dies in Assembly Committee A day after data broker legislation sailed through the California Assembly Judiciary Committee, the body's Insurance Committee killed the bill by a 2 to 5 vote. The data broker bill would have required companies that sell personal information to certify that their clients were legitimate and to provide individuals with copies of their dossier. Despite the many amendments that the bill's sponsor, Sen. Jackie Speier accepted to narrow the bill, objections were made by data brokers, banks, consumer reporting agencies, private investigators, and others who traffic in individuals' personal information. Attention now shifts from California to Washington, DC, where bipartisan databroker bills have been introduced by the leadership of the Senate Judiciary and Commerce Committees, and by the House Commerce Committee. SB 550, California Data Broker Access and Accuracy Act of 2005 http://www.epic.org/redirect/calif0705.html S. 1332, Personal Data Privacy and Security Act of 2005 http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:s.01332: In United Kingdom, Civil Liberties at Risk After London Attacks In the aftermath of the bomb attacks in London last week, government proposals pose risks to civil liberties in the country. The UK Home Secretary has convinced European Union ministers to force European phone and Internet companies to retain records of calls, text messages and e-mails. A similar proposal was rejected in May by the European Parliament's civil liberties' committee. The committee found that terrorists could avoid being traced by the system by using telephone cards, public telephones or using Internet companies outside Europe. Also, the media reports London authorities are considering installation of backscatter X-ray scanners in Tube stations throughout the city. These machines, which show detailed images of a person's naked body, are equivalent to a "virtual strip search." EPIC's June Spotlight on Surveillance highlighted the privacy risks associated with these machines. EPIC's June Spotlight on Surveillance About Backscatter X-Ray Machines: http://www.epic.org/privacy/surveillance/spotlight/0605/ EPIC's Backscatter X-Ray Screening Technology Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/airtravel/backscatter/ Germany Approves Plan to Add Biometric Data to Passports On July 8, the German Parliament approved a proposal to introduce new electronic passports containing biometric data. A chip contained in the document will initially contain a digital picture of the traveler's face, and will store fingerprints starting in March 2007. These new "ePass" passports will be issued beginning in November. The ePass uses a Radio Frequency Identification chip to store and transmit information to specialized readers that will be installed in all border stations. Officials say the chip can only be read by calculating a special access code when the booklet is opened. The new passports will cost German citizens 59 Euros ($71) each, more than double their current cost of 23 Euros ($27). EPIC's Biometrics Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/biometrics/ EPIC's RFID Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/rfid/ U.S. Court: Navy Wrongfully Discharged Man for Refusing to Use SSN The U.S. Court of Federal Claims ruled in Carmichael v. U.S. that the Navy wrongfully discharged David Alan Carmichael after failing to properly consider his request for religious accommodation. Mr. Carmichael had sought to have his Military Personnel Identification Number changed to a number other than his Social Security Number (SSN). For reasons of religious conviction, Mr. Carmichael had attempted to disassociate himself and his family from all involvement with the Social Security program, including the use of an SSN. In 1996, he wrote a letter to the Commissioner of Social Security, and attempted to "opt-out" of the Social Security program. From then until his discharge from the Navy on March 17, 1997, he refused to sign documents that identified him by his SSN. A previous decision by the Court of Federal Claims to dismiss Mr. Carmichael's wrongful discharge claim had been vacated and remanded by the U.S. Court of Appeals. U.S. Court of Federal Claims Ruling in Carmichael v. US (pdf): http://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/Opinions/Futey/05/FUTEY.Carmichael.pdf EPIC's Social Security Number Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/ssn/ Reporter's Imprisonment Sparks Debate About Press Freedom New York Times reporter Judith Miller was imprisoned on July 6 on a contempt order after she refused to name her anonymous source to a grand jury investigating the leak of a CIA operative's name. In February, a U.S. Court of Appeals rejected Ms. Miller's defense of "reporter's privilege, " or right to maintain source anonymity. The Supreme Court, which has declined to hear Ms. Miller's appeal, held in 1972 that reporters must testify if there is a "compelling" state interest. However, many courts recognize a reporter privilege under the First Amendment, and virtually all states have shield laws protecting journalists. Press advocates fear that failing to uphold sources' anonymity will frustrate reporters' ability to bring sensitive information to light. Ms. Miller faces up to four months in jail, the length of time before the term of the grand jury in the case expires. EPIC's Privileges Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/privileges/ EPIC's Privacy Protection Act Page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/ppa/ Lufthansa, Siemens Roll Out Biometric Ticketing System Lufthansa, Germany's national airline and the third biggest in Europe, is testing biometric ticketing on 400 of its employees at Frankfurt Airport. The system, designed by Siemens, translates a thumbprint into a barcode at check-in. Then, before boarding, the barcode is scanned and matched with the passenger's thumbprint for verification. The pilot project is called "Trusted Traveler" and is expected to be widely implemented by 2006. Lufthansa says the program will be voluntary, but will encourage its frequent fliers to have the thumbprint barcode added to their frequent flier cards. EPIC's Air Travel Privacy page: http://www.epic.org/privacy/airtravel/ ========================================================================  EPIC Bookstore: John Twelve Hawks's The Traveler ======================================================================== John Twelve Hawks, The Traveler (Doubleday Books, 2005) http://www.epic.org/bookstore/powells/redirect/alert1214.html "The facts you know are mostly an illusion. The real struggle of history is going on beneath the surface." While this quote could easily come from one of the "Matrix" films, it is in fact from The Traveler by John Twelve Hawks, a new science fiction book about the struggle between good and evil in a surveillance society. In Twelve Hawks' world, the good guys are the Travelers, select humans born to enlighten mankind and resist the dominance of the evil Tabula. The Tabula are a dark and powerful group that operates outside the strictures of government, working behind the scenes to establish a panoptic world of perfect control. The Tabula employ high-tech, privacy-invasive tools such as video surveillance, RFIDs, biometrics, and Carnivore to track and eliminate threats to their master plan. They also manipulate the "Vast Machine," a matrix of media, government, and corporate messages that fills people's minds with selective information and distracts them from the reality that their lives are externally constructed and controlled, preventing them from questioning the status quo. Travelers -- who include Buddha, Jesus Christ, and Joan of Arc among their fallen ranks -- inspire people to break free of the illusions generated by the Vast Machine. Instead of killing the Travelers, as the Tabula have done in the past, they now want to harness the Travelers' powers as part of the larger plan to build the perfect panopticon. The Traveler manages to weave technology, philosophy, history, mysticism and pop culture into an epic story, making for an entertaining and thoughtful read. While not a literary novel in the style of Orwell or Kafka, The Traveler is a story that has the potential to raise questions about the state of privacy among popular audiences. The book is currently on the New York Times Bestseller list and is set to become a movie early next year. -- Louisa Garib ================================ EPIC Publications: "Privacy & Human Rights 2004: An International Survey of Privacy Laws and Developments" (EPIC 2004). Price: $35. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/phr2004 This survey, by EPIC and Privacy International, reviews the state of privacy in more than sixty countries around the world. The survey examines a wide range of privacy issues including data protection, passenger profiling, genetic databases, video surveillance, ID systems and freedom of information laws. ================================ "FOIA 2004: Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws," Harry Hammitt, David Sobel and Tiffany Stedman, editors (EPIC 2004). Price: $40. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/foia2004 This is the standard reference work covering all aspects of the Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Government in the Sunshine Act, and the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The 22nd edition fully updates the manual that lawyers, journalists and researchers have relied on for more than 25 years. For those who litigate open government cases (or need to learn how to litigate them), this is an essential reference manual. ================================ "The Public Voice WSIS Sourcebook: Perspectives on the World Summit on the Information Society" (EPIC 2004). Price: $40. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/pvsourcebook This resource promotes a dialogue on the issues, the outcomes, and the process of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). This reference guide provides the official UN documents, regional and issue-oriented perspectives, as well as recommendations and proposals for future action, as well as a useful list of resources and contacts for individuals and organizations that wish to become more involved in the WSIS process. ================================ "The Privacy Law Sourcebook 2003: United States Law, International Law, and Recent Developments," Marc Rotenberg, editor (EPIC 2003). Price: $40. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/pls2003 The "Physicians Desk Reference of the privacy world." An invaluable resource for students, attorneys, researchers and journalists who need an up-to-date collection of U.S. and International privacy law, as well as a comprehensive listing of privacy resources. ================================ "Filters and Freedom 2.0: Free Speech Perspectives on Internet Content Controls" (EPIC 2001). Price: $20. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/filters2.0 A collection of essays, studies, and critiques of Internet content filtering. These papers are instrumental in explaining why filtering threatens free expression. ================================ "The Consumer Law Sourcebook 2000: Electronic Commerce and the Global Economy," Sarah Andrews, editor (EPIC 2000). Price: $40. http://www.epic.org/cls The Consumer Law Sourcebook provides a basic set of materials for consumers, policy makers, practitioners and researchers who are interested in the emerging field of electronic commerce. The focus is on framework legislation that articulates basic rights for consumers and the basic responsibilities for businesses in the online economy. ================================ "Cryptography and Liberty 2000: An International Survey of Encryption Policy," Wayne Madsen and David Banisar, authors (EPIC 2000). Price: $20. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/crypto00& EPIC's third survey of encryption policies around the world. The results indicate that the efforts to reduce export controls on strong encryption products have largely succeeded, although several governments are gaining new powers to combat the perceived threats of encryption to law enforcement. ================================ EPIC publications and other books on privacy, open government, free expression, crypto and governance can be ordered at: EPIC Bookstore http://www.epic.org/bookstore "EPIC Bookshelf" at Powell's Books http://www.powells.com/features/epic/epic.html ================================ EPIC also publishes EPIC FOIA Notes, which provides brief summaries of interesting documents obtained from government agencies under the Freedom of Information Act. Subscribe to EPIC FOIA Notes at: https://mailman.epic.org/cgi-bin/control/foia_notes ======================================================================  Upcoming Conferences and Events ====================================================================== Smart IDs: A Smart Idea? July 15, 2005. National Academies, Washington, DC. For more information: (Media Contact) Office of News and Public Information, 202-334-2138. (Other Inquiries) Jason Leith, Science & Policy Fellow, 202-334-3223; e-mail: email@example.com PEP05: UM05 Workshop on Privacy-Enhanced Personalization. July 25, 2005. Edinburgh, Scotland. For more information: http://www.ics.uci.edu/~kobsa/PEP05/ National Driver's License Strategy Meeting. July 27, 2005. Washington, DC. Travel scholarships for state and local organizations are available. For more information: http://www.nilc.org/trainings/ 3rd International Human.Society@Internet Conference. July 27-29, 2005. Tokyo, Japan. For more information: http://hsi.itrc.net/ Access to Information: Analyzing the State of the Law. Riley
Information Services. September 8, 2005. Ottawa, Ontario. For more
information: http://www.rileyis.com/seminars/ 5th Annual Future of Music Policy Summit. Future of Music Coalition.
September 11-13, 2005. Washington DC. For more information:
http://www.futureofmusic.org/events/summit05/ Conference On Passenger Facilitation & Immigration: Newest trends in achieving a seamless experience in air travel International Air Transport Association (IATA) and Singapore Aviation Academy (SAA) October 3-5, 2005 Singapore Aviation Academy. For more information: http://www.saa.com.sg/conf_pax_fac/ Public Voice Symposium: "Privacy and Data Protection in Latin America -
Analysis and Perspectives." Launch of the first Spanish version of
"Privacy and Human Rights." October 20-21, 2005, Auditorio Alberto
Lleras Camargo de la Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia.
Organizers: Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), Grupo de
Estudios en Internet, Comercio Electrónico, Telecomunicaciones e
Informática (GECTI), Law School of the Universidad de los Andes, Bogota,
Colombia, Computer Professional for Social Responsibility-Peru
(CPSR-Perú). For more information: