EPIC v. DHS - SOP 303
- DHS Open Government Report Reveals Increased Backlog and Use of Law Enforcement Exemptions: The Department of Homeland Security has released the 2013 Freedom of Information Act Report detailing the agencies attempts to comply with the federal open government law. The FOIA requires each agency to provide the numbers of requests received and processed, the time taken to respond, the outcome of each request, and other statistics. In 2013, the DHS reported a significant increase in its FOIA backlog, which rose from 28,553 unanswered requests in 2012 to 53,598 unanswered requests in 2013. Of the nine exemptions that an agency can invoke to withhold documents, DHS relied most heavily on exemption 7(C) (law enforcement records that if released would constitute an invasion of personal privacy) and 7(E) (law enforcement records that if released would disclose law enforcement techniques or procedures, which is significant because the DHS is not a law enforcement agency. DHS reported granting about 7% of requests for expedited processing. EPIC has prevailed in several FOIA lawsuits against DHS, and has also worked to reform the agency's FOIA processing practices for other requesters. For more information, see EPIC v. DHS - Body Scanner FOIA Appeal, EPIC v. DHS - Social Media Monitoring, and EPIC v. DHS - SOP 303. (Feb. 21, 2014)
Standard Operating Procedure 303 codifies “a shutdown and restoration process for use by commercial and private wireless networks during national crises.”
On March 9, 2006, the National Communications System (“NCS”) approved SOP 303, however it was never released to the public. This secret document codifies a “shutdown and restoration process for use by commercial and private wireless networks during national crisis.” In a 2006-2007 Report, the President’s National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (“NSTAC”) indicated that SOP 303 would be implemented under the coordination of the National Coordinating Center (“NCC”) of the NSTAC, while the decision to shut down service would be made by state Homeland Security Advisors or individuals at DHS. The report indicates that NCC will determine if a shutdown is necessary based on a “series of questions."
On July 3, 2011, a Bay Area Rapid Transit (“BART”) officer in San Francisco shot and killed a homeless man, Charles Hill. The officer alleged later that Hill had attacked him with a knife and that he had acted in self-defense. The death sparked a major protest against BART on July 11, 2011. Though the protests disrupted service at several transit stations, no one was injured. A second protest was planned one month later, but was cut short after BART officials cut off all cellular service inside four transit stations for a period of three hours. This act prevented any individual on the station platform from sending or receiving phone calls, messages, or other data.
The incident with BART has set off a renewed interest in the government’s power to shut down access to the Internet and other communications services. A 2011 Report from the White House asserted that the National Security Council and the Office of Science and Technology Policy have the legal authority to control private communications systems in the United States during times of war or other national emergencies. The Federal Communications Commission plans to implement policies governing the shutdown of communications traffic for the “purpose of ensuring public safety”. Also, on July 6, 2012, the White House approved an Executive Order seeking to ensure the continuity of government communications during a national crisis. As part of the Executive Order, DHS was granted the authority to seize private facilities, when necessary, effectively shutting down or limiting civilian communications.
EPIC's Freedom of Information Act Request and Subsequent Lawsuit
In July 2012, EPIC submitted a FOIA request to DHS for:
- The full text of Standard Operating Procedure 303;
- The full text of the pre-determined “series of questions” that determines if a shutdown is necessary;
- Any executing protocols related to the implementation of Standard Operating Procedure 303, distributed to DHS, other federal agencies, or private companies, including protocols related to oversight of shutdown determinations.
On July 24, 2012, DHS acknowledged receipt of EPIC’s FOIA Request. On August 21, 2012, DHS provided its final response, claiming that the agency was “unable to locate or identify any responsive records.”
On February 27, 2013, EPIC filed EPIC filed a lawsuit under the FOIA. After filing the complaint, EPIC received a letter from the United States Coast Guard Office of the Chief Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Decision Letter. The letter indicated that “the record fails to demonstrate that the Privacy Office conducted an adequate search for responsive records” and stated that the filed would be remanded for further review.
EPIC v. DHS
- DHS Motion for Summary Judgment (Jun. 28, 2013)
- EPIC Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment (July 26, 2013)
- DHS Reply (Aug. 9, 2013)
- Memorandum Opinion (Nov. 12, 2013)
- Order Granting Plaintiff’s Motion for Summary Judgment (Nov. 12, 2013)
- DHS Appeal (Jan. 13, 2014)
- SOP 303 (Redacted) (Jun. 28, 2013)
- US Government Ordered to Reveal Details of “Internet Kill Switch” to Deactivate Wi-fi Networks , The News Reports, Nov. 27, 2013
- The Government's Secret Plan to Shut Off Cellphones and the Internet, Explained, Mother Jones, Nov. 26, 2013
- The Government Might Finally Have to Explain Its “Internet Kill Switch” Policy, Slate, Nov. 25, 2013
- Court: Homeland Security Must Disclose ‘Internet Kill Switch’, Free Beacon, Nov. 13, 2013
- Boston bombing outage rumors shed light on mobile and Internet 'kill switch', Russia Today, Apr. 17, 2013
- Gov’t didn’t shut down cell networks in Boston—but it could have, Ars Technica, Apr. 16, 2013
- Technology Freedom Group Challenges Government’s Ability To “Shutdown” Internet, Wireless Services, Mint Press News, Mar. 6, 2013
- Rights Group Sues Big Sis Over Internet Kill Switch, Infowars, Mar. 1, 2013