The European Commission has announced Recommendations and provided a Citizens Summary for the implementation of privacy and data protection safeguards for radio-frequency identification. RFID applications transfer personal data wirelessly between an embedded tag, typically in an ID card or product, and a reader. Many privacy concerns have been raised. The EC Recommendations reaffirm the privacy rights and obligations in the European Privacy Directives. The guidance directs organizations to perform privacy impact assessments, apply risk minimization techniques, and inform individuals about RFID. In the US, EPIC has urged strong consumer protections for RFID before the Alaska and New Hampshire state legislatures, the Federal Trade Commission and the DHS on the use of RFID embedded passports. For more information, see EPIC's page on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems.