A federal appeals court has ruled that a state law prohibiting all caller ID spoofing is preempted by the federal Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009. Under the federal law, it is only unlawful to transmit misleading caller information with the intent to defraud or cause harm. EPIC urged the Senate in 2007 and House of Representatives in 2006 and 2007 to establish this intent requirement to protect the use of Privacy Enhancing Technologies, which limit the disclosure of actual identity. The appeals court's ruling upholds this important privacy protection. For more information, see EPIC: Illegal Sale of Phone Records and EPIC: Comments to FCC on TCIA Rules.