EPIC, joined by nearly a dozen consumer privacy groups, submitted a letter to the FCC reviewing the invasive consumer tracking and consumer profiling practices of Internet service providers (ISPs), which "underscore the imperative for the FCC to exercise the full extent of its rulemaking authority to protect consumer privacy." The letter explained why encryption and virtual private networks ("VPNs") are insufficient to protect consumers from ISP surveillance. The letter described how the Federal Trade Commission's reactive, "notice and choice" approach to privacy fails to provide meaningful protections for consumers. EPIC previously urged the FCC to undertake a broad rulemaking on "the full range of communications privacy issues facing US consumers." EPIC has worked with the FCC to promote consumer privacy in the communications field for more than 20 years.