Senators Edward Markey (D-MA) and Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) have introduced the "Security and Privacy in Your Car Act of 2017." The SPY Car Act would establish cybersecurity and privacy standards for new passenger vehicles, and establish a privacy rating system. A 2014 report from Senator Markey "detailed major gaps in how auto companies are securing connected features in cars against hackers." The bill would also prevent the use of driver data for marketing purposes without consent. In 2015 EPIC testified before Congress on the need for privacy and safety safeguards for connected vehicles. In 2016 EPIC filed an amicus brief in federal appeals court to protect consumers in cases involving connect vehicles.