The National Academies of Sciences has released a report "Securing the Vote: Protecting American Democracy," highlighting vulnerabilities in current voting technology. EPIC Advisory Board member Ronald Rivest served on the expert committee. The Academies report includes many recommendations "designed to harden our election infrastructure and safeguard its integrity and credibility," concerning voter registration, ballot design, voting technology, system certification, cybersecurity, online voting, and auditing. The Academies report recommends end-to-end verifiable systems to ensure that votes have been counted as intended. These systems use cryptographic methods developed by EPIC Advisory Board member David Chaum. In 2016, EPIC published "The Secret Ballot at Risk: Recommendations for Protecting Democracy," highlighting the importance of the secret ballot for American democracy. The Academies report noted that new strategies for election security "must still preserve the secret ballot."