EPIC logo

                             E P I C  A l e r t
Volume 12.14                                               July 14, 2005

                             Published by the
                Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
                             Washington, D.C.


Table of Contents

[1] EPIC Urges FTC to Investigate Online Private Investigators
[2] Privacy Problems Remain at Homeland Security Even With Restructuring
[3] Banks, Sports Authority Target Anti-Telemarketing Laws
[4] Congressional Committees Consider Patriot Act Reauthorization
[5] Justice O'Connor Respected Privacy, Defended States' Rights
[6] News in Brief
[7] EPIC Bookstore: John Twelve Hawks's The Traveler
[8] Upcoming Conferences and Events

[1] EPIC Urges FTC to Investigate Online Private Investigators

EPIC urged the Federal Trade Commission to initiate an industry-wide
investigation of online investigation services last week. In a complaint
to the FTC, EPIC documented the practices of one online investigation
site, bestpeoplesearch.com. That site advertises for sale personal
information that is protected by federal privacy law, and normally
cannot be obtained without violating the law.

Specifically, the EPIC complaint highlighted the sale of
telecommunications records and the ownership information of Postal
Service and private mailboxes. Bestpeoplesearch.com offers for sale
billing records of both wireless and landline telephone accounts, for
$187 and $87, respectively. These billing records show all the calls
placed and received and their duration. Under federal law, billing
records are confidential and can only be disclosed under specific
circumstances, such as when a court order is obtained. Nevertheless,
bestpeoplesearch.com advertises the availability of these records, but
cautions that they are for "your personal informational purpose only.
These reports are NOT valid in a court of law."

Postal Service and private mailbox ownership information is protected by
federal regulations and can only be disclosed to government agencies,
individuals attempting to serve legal process, or to an individual with
a court order. Despite these protections, bestpeoplesearch.com offers
for sale information on Postal Service box owners for $77, and private
box owners for $97. As with the phone calling records,
bestpeoplesearch.com makes suspicious representations concerning the
sources and availability of the data: "Investigators work with
postmasters all over the USA. It is up to the individual Postmaster
whether they want work [sic] with the investigator..."

EPIC's complaint notes that many other sites are advertising similar
services to bestpeoplesearch.com.  Some of these other sites offer the
actual identity of people who use screen names on AOL, Match.com,
Kiss.com, Lavalife, and Friendfinder.com. In addition to calling for an
industry-wide investigation, EPIC urged the FTC to seek legislation to
expand protections against pretexting, the practice of pretending to
have a legitimate reason to access the account holder's information; and
through access to consumers' online billing accounts.

EPIC's Complaint to the FTC:


Washington Post article:


Wall Street Journal article:


[2] Privacy Problems Remain at Homeland Security Even With Restructuring

Yesterday, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff announced a
restructuring of the department and some of its programs. Two aspects of
the plan are of significance to privacy rights: the failure to
strengthen the authority of the Department of Homeland Security Privacy
Office and the expansion of personal data gathered for US-VISIT.

Homeland Security's Privacy Office's effectiveness in pursuing privacy
complaints is lacking. The office has no authority to issue subpoenas
and must depend on voluntary cooperation to conduct its investigations.
This limitation has hampered the office's ability to identify and
correct violations of federal privacy law. For example, a November 2003
email obtained by EPIC under the Freedom of Information Act shows the
Privacy Office had difficulty gathering information for its
investigation of the Transportation Security Administration's role in
the transfer of JetBlue Airways passenger data to a Defense Department
contractor. Noting that "information has not been forthcoming" in
response to internal inquiries, Chief Privacy Officer Nuala O'Connor
Kelly wrote, "we're getting better information from outside than we have
from our own folks at this time."

Several Democratic members of the House of Representatives criticized
the omission of broader powers for the Privacy Office in Mr. Chertoff's
plan. The members said in a statement that "[t]he Secretary should have
asked Congress for new authority to permit the Privacy Officer to: (1)
access all records deemed necessary; (2) undertake any privacy
investigation that the Privacy Officer believes is appropriate; (3)
subpoena documents from the private sector when necessary to fulfill
statutory mandates; (4) obtain sworn testimony; and (5) take the same
actions that the Department's Inspector General may take in order to
obtain answers to questions and responsive documents required for
investigatory work. To insulate the Privacy Officer from outside
political pressure, the position should be granted a five-year term and
should be allowed to submit reports directly to Congress." According to
the statement, "[t]he Secretary's failure to request these new powers
for the Privacy Officer was a mistake."

Mr. Chertoff also announced that Homeland Security would expand the
collection of biometric data from visitors entering the country through
the US-VISIT program. From its inception in 2003, the US-VISIT program
has used a two-fingerprint identification system, but Homeland Security
now will begin collecting a full ten-fingerprint set from travelers.
This expands the already vast amount of personal data accumulated by the
program, including some data about U.S. citizens and legal permanent
residents. This information includes complete name, date of birth,
citizenship, sex, passport number and country of issuance, country of
residence, United States visa number, date, place of issuance (where
applicable), alien registration number (where applicable), address while
in the United States, and such other information.

Department of Homeland Security Press Release About Restructuring:


Statement of Some Democratic Members of the House of Representatives in
Response to the Department of Homeland Security Restructuring (pdf):


E-mail from Chief Privacy Officer Nuala O'Connor Kelly obtained under
the Freedom of Information Act (pdf):


EPIC's Air Travel Privacy Page:


July Spotlight on Surveillance About US-VISIT:




[3] Banks, Sports Authority Target Anti-Telemarketing Laws

Major retailers, like the Sports Authority; telemarketing companies; and
large banks have petitioned the Federal Communications Commission,
urging the agency to "preempt," or supercede, anti-telemarketing laws in
five states--Florida, New Jersey, Indiana, Wisconsin, and North Dakota.
These five states do not recognize the "established business
relationship" exception to the telemarketing Do-Not-Call Registry. This
loophole allows companies to contact their current customers, even if
they are on the Do-Not-Call Registry. If an individual makes any
purchase or requests any information from a business, he or she has
created an "established business relationship." In the case of
purchases, the business may call the individual for the next 18 months;
if the individual merely requested information, the business may call
for 3 months.

In the petitions, some of the groups, such as Sports Authority, admit
that they aren't using standard telemarketing; instead they are using
pre-recorded voice message telemarketing on their existing customers. In
this marketing technique, a computer is programmed to call thousands of
people and play a recorded message. Unlike live telemarketing,
pre-recorded voice requires the Sports Authority and banks to use fewer
resources, allowing them to initiate millions of calls a day. If the
Federal Communications Commission preempts these five states, forcing
them to recognize the federal "established business relationship"
exception, the number of telemarketing calls will increase dramatically.

EPIC and a coalition of groups are filing comments in opposition to the
petitions. These comments argue that compliance with state telemarketing
law is easier now than ever, and that the same technologies that
telemarketers use to target solicitations could be used to comply with
state privacy laws. Individuals are encouraged to file comments in
support of state-level protections against telemarketing, and against
"established business relationship" telemarketing calls unless the
business first gives clear notice of the intent to telemarket and gains
verifiable consent from the customer.

EPIC's Telemarketing Preemption Page:


FCC Electronic Comment Filing System:


Sports Authority Preemption Petition (requesting preemption of Florida
law) (pdf):


Allied Preemption Petition (requesting preemption of all state laws)


FCC Request for Comments on the Sports Authority and Banks' Petitions:


FCC Request for Comments on the Allied Petition:


[4] Congressional Committees Consider Patriot Act Reauthorization

This week the House Judiciary Committee will vote whether to renew key
provisions of the Patriot Act that would otherwise expire this year.
Among the key provisions are several that expand the use of secret
search authority under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of
1978. The FISA permits the government to pursue a search for "foreign
intelligence" information below traditional Fourth Amendment standards.
The determinations are made by a secret court, and traditional remedies
for abuse, such as suppression, do not apply.

Since passage of the Patriot Act, there has been a dramatic increase in
the use of FISA powers. According to the Department of Justice's annual
FISA reports, the number of FISA applications granted increased from
1,012 in 2000 to 1,754 in 2004. In 2003 and 2004, there were more FISA
warrants issued than regular federal wiretap warrants, which follow a
stringent legal standard. Prior to passage of the Patriot Act, this had
never occurred.

The final report of the 9/11 Commission recommended a two-part test for
Patriot Act renewal. It said first that the burden of proof for renewal
fell on the president to show that the various provisions materially
enhance security. The Commission also said that there must be adequate
supervision of such powers to ensure that civil liberties are protected.
If the power is renewed, the Commission emphasized, there must be
appropriate guidelines and oversight to prevent misuse.

To date, there is little indication that the use of FISA authority has
materially enhanced security or that adequate means of oversight for the
expanded use of the 1978 law has been established.

H.R. 3199, the USA PATRIOT and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act
of 2005:


House Judiciary Committee Markup of the USA PATRIOT and Terrorism
Prevention Reauthorization Act of 2005:


EPIC's PATRIOT Sunset Page:


EPIC's Wiretap Page:


EPIC's Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Page:


9/11 Commission recommendations (pdf):


[5] Justice O'Connor Respected Privacy, Defended States' Rights

Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, described by many as a critical swing vote
on a closely divided Supreme Court, announced her retirement from the
U.S. Supreme Court on July 1. She also should be remembered for her
judicial independence. In a series of opinions -- concurrences and
dissents, as well as decisions on behalf of the Court -- she raised
concerns about police databases, opposed suspicionless drug testing
statutes, defended innovative legislative efforts by the states, and
supported "open government" laws. Justice O'Connor was the first female
Supreme Court justice and a former majority leader in the Arizona

Justice O'Connor was a proponent of the idea that states should serve as
laboratories for new social and economic experiments. This idea, first
contemplated by the Framers, was reiterated by Justice Louis Brandeis in
1932 and served as an influence for many of Justice O'Connor's decisions
throughout the years. Consistent with these ideals, O'Connor delivered
several unexpected opinions including the recent dissent in Gonzales v.
Raich (2005). She disagreed with the majority's holding that Congress
has the power to prohibit and prosecute the possession and use of
marijuana for medical purposes, even in the states that permit such use.

Throughout her opinions, Justice O'Connor also worked to uphold the
principles of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Whether the case
was mandatory drug testing in schools or drug checkpoints in Indiana,
Justice O'Connor wrote that suspicionless searches violated the Fourth
Amendment. In Watchtower Bible v. Village of Stratton (2002), she voted
to uphold the First Amendment's right to anonymous speech.

Privacy Highlights of Justice O'Connor's Career:

Justice O'Connor in concurrence, on technology and law enforcement:

      The police, of course, are entitled to enjoy the substantial
      advantages this technology confers. They may not, however, rely on
      it blindly. With the benefits of more efficient law enforcement
      mechanisms comes the burden of corresponding constitutional
      responsibilities. Arizona v. Evans (2005)

Justice O'Connor in dissent, arguing against suspicionless drug testing
in schools:

      T]he substantial consequences that can flow from a positive test,
      such as suspension from sports, are invariably - and quite
      reasonably - understood as punishment. The best proof that the
      District's testing program is to some extent accusatory can be
      found in James Acton's own explanation on the witness stand as to
      why he did not want to submit to drug testing: "Because I feel that
      they have no reason to think I was taking drugs."  It is hard to
      think of a manner of explanation that resonates more intensely in
      our Fourth Amendment tradition than this. Vernonia School District
      v. Acton (1995)

Justice O'Connor, writing for a plurality of the Court, on a reasonable
expectation of privacy in the workplace:

      Given the societal expectations of privacy in one's place of work
      expressed in both Oliver and Mancusi, we reject the contention made
      by the Solicitor General and petitioners that public employees can
      never have a reasonable expectation of privacy in their place of
      work. Individuals do not lose Fourth Amendment rights merely
      because they work for the government instead of a private employer.
      O'Connor v. Ortega (1987)

EPIC's Sandra Day O'Connor Legacy Page:


Watchtower Bible Oral Argument (O'Connor excerpt) (mp3):


Supreme Court Web site:


[6] News in Brief

CA Data Broker Bill Dies in Assembly Committee

A day after data broker legislation sailed through the California
Assembly Judiciary Committee, the body's Insurance Committee killed the
bill by a 2 to 5 vote. The data broker bill would have required
companies that sell personal information to certify that their clients
were legitimate and to provide individuals with copies of their dossier.
Despite the many amendments that the bill's sponsor, Sen. Jackie Speier
accepted to narrow the bill, objections were made by data brokers,
banks, consumer reporting agencies, private investigators, and others
who traffic in individuals' personal information. Attention now shifts
from California to Washington, DC, where bipartisan databroker bills
have been introduced by the leadership of the Senate Judiciary and
Commerce Committees, and by the House Commerce Committee.

SB 550, California Data Broker Access and Accuracy Act of 2005


S. 1332, Personal Data Privacy and Security Act of 2005


In United Kingdom, Civil Liberties at Risk After London Attacks

In the aftermath of the bomb attacks in London last week, government
proposals pose risks to civil liberties in the country. The UK Home
Secretary has convinced European Union ministers to force European phone
and Internet companies to retain records of calls, text messages and
e-mails. A similar proposal was rejected in May by the European
Parliament's civil liberties' committee. The committee found that
terrorists could avoid being traced by the system by using telephone
cards, public telephones or using Internet companies outside Europe.
Also, the media reports London authorities are considering installation
of backscatter X-ray scanners in Tube stations throughout the city.
These machines, which show detailed images of a person's naked body, are
equivalent to a "virtual strip search." EPIC's June Spotlight on
Surveillance highlighted the privacy risks associated with these

EPIC's June Spotlight on Surveillance About Backscatter X-Ray Machines:


EPIC's Backscatter X-Ray Screening Technology Page:


Germany Approves Plan to Add Biometric Data to Passports

On July 8, the German Parliament approved a proposal to introduce new
electronic passports containing biometric data. A chip contained in the
document will initially contain a digital picture of the traveler's
face, and will store fingerprints starting in March 2007. These new
"ePass" passports will be issued beginning in November. The ePass uses a
Radio Frequency Identification chip to store and transmit information to
specialized readers that will be installed in all border stations.
Officials say the chip can only be read by calculating a special access
code when the booklet is opened. The new passports will cost German
citizens 59 Euros ($71) each, more than double their current cost of 23
Euros ($27).

EPIC's Biometrics Page:




U.S. Court: Navy Wrongfully Discharged Man for Refusing to Use SSN

The U.S. Court of Federal Claims ruled in Carmichael v. U.S. that the
Navy wrongfully discharged David Alan Carmichael after failing to
properly consider his request for religious accommodation. Mr.
Carmichael had sought to have his Military Personnel Identification
Number changed to a number other than his Social Security Number (SSN).
For reasons of religious conviction, Mr. Carmichael had attempted to
disassociate himself and his family from all involvement with the Social
Security program, including the use of an SSN. In 1996, he wrote a
letter to the Commissioner of Social Security, and attempted to
"opt-out" of the Social Security program. From then until his discharge
from the Navy on March 17, 1997, he refused to sign documents that
identified him by his SSN. A previous decision by the Court of Federal
Claims to dismiss Mr. Carmichael's wrongful discharge claim had been
vacated and remanded by the U.S. Court of Appeals.

U.S. Court of Federal Claims Ruling in Carmichael v. US (pdf):


EPIC's Social Security Number Page:


Reporter's Imprisonment Sparks Debate About Press Freedom

New York Times reporter Judith Miller was imprisoned on July 6 on a
contempt order after she refused to name her anonymous source to a grand
jury investigating the leak of a CIA operative's name. In February, a
U.S. Court of Appeals rejected Ms. Miller's defense of "reporter's
privilege, " or right to maintain source anonymity. The Supreme Court,
which has declined to hear Ms. Miller's appeal, held in 1972 that
reporters must testify if there is a "compelling" state interest.
However, many courts recognize a reporter privilege under the First
Amendment, and virtually all states have shield laws protecting
journalists. Press advocates fear that failing to uphold sources'
anonymity will frustrate reporters' ability to bring sensitive
information to light. Ms. Miller faces up to four months in jail, the
length of time before the term of the grand jury in the case expires.

EPIC's Privileges Page:


EPIC's Privacy Protection Act Page:


Lufthansa, Siemens Roll Out Biometric Ticketing System

Lufthansa, Germany's national airline and the third biggest in Europe,
is testing biometric ticketing on 400 of its employees at Frankfurt
Airport. The system, designed by Siemens, translates a thumbprint into a
barcode at check-in. Then, before boarding, the barcode is scanned and
matched with the passenger's thumbprint for verification. The pilot
project is called "Trusted Traveler" and is expected to be widely
implemented by 2006. Lufthansa says the program will be voluntary, but
will encourage its frequent fliers to have the thumbprint barcode added
to their frequent flier cards.

EPIC's Air Travel Privacy page:


[7] EPIC Bookstore: John Twelve Hawks's The Traveler

John Twelve Hawks, The Traveler (Doubleday Books, 2005)


"The facts you know are mostly an illusion. The real struggle of history
is going on beneath the surface." While this quote could easily come
from one of the "Matrix" films, it is in fact from The Traveler by John
Twelve Hawks, a new science fiction book about the struggle between good
and evil in a surveillance society.

In Twelve Hawks' world, the good guys are the Travelers, select humans
born to enlighten mankind and resist the dominance of the evil Tabula.
The Tabula are a dark and powerful group that operates outside the
strictures of government, working behind the scenes to establish a
panoptic world of perfect control. The Tabula employ high-tech,
privacy-invasive tools such as video surveillance, RFIDs, biometrics,
and Carnivore to track and eliminate threats to their master plan. They
also manipulate the "Vast Machine," a matrix of media, government, and
corporate messages that fills people's minds with selective information
and distracts them from the reality that their lives are externally
constructed and controlled, preventing them from questioning the status
quo. Travelers -- who include Buddha, Jesus Christ, and Joan of Arc
among their fallen ranks -- inspire people to break free of the
illusions generated by the Vast Machine. Instead of killing the
Travelers, as the Tabula have done in the past, they now want to harness
the Travelers' powers as part of the larger plan to build the perfect

The Traveler manages to weave technology, philosophy, history, mysticism
and pop culture into an epic story, making for an entertaining and
thoughtful read. While not a literary novel in the style of Orwell or
Kafka, The Traveler is a story that has the potential to raise questions
about the state of privacy among popular audiences. The book is
currently on the New York Times Bestseller list and is set to become a
movie early next year.

-- Louisa Garib


EPIC Publications:

"Privacy & Human Rights 2004: An International Survey of Privacy Laws
and Developments" (EPIC 2004). Price: $35.

This survey, by EPIC and Privacy International, reviews the state of
privacy in more than sixty countries around the world.  The survey
examines a wide range of privacy issues including data protection,
passenger profiling, genetic databases, video surveillance, ID systems
and freedom of information laws.


"FOIA 2004: Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws," Harry
Hammitt, David Sobel and Tiffany Stedman, editors (EPIC 2004). Price:
$40. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/foia2004

This is the standard reference work covering all aspects of the
Freedom of Information Act, the Privacy Act, the Government in the
Sunshine Act, and the Federal Advisory Committee Act.  The 22nd
edition fully updates the manual that lawyers, journalists and
researchers have relied on for more than 25 years.  For those who
litigate open government cases (or need to learn how to litigate
them), this is an essential reference manual.


"The Public Voice WSIS Sourcebook: Perspectives on the World Summit on
the Information Society" (EPIC 2004). Price: $40.

This resource promotes a dialogue on the issues, the outcomes, and the
process of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS).  This
reference guide provides the official UN documents, regional and
issue-oriented perspectives, as well as recommendations and proposals
for future action, as well as a useful list of resources and contacts
for individuals and organizations that wish to become more involved in
the WSIS process.


"The Privacy Law Sourcebook 2003: United States Law, International
Law, and Recent Developments," Marc Rotenberg, editor (EPIC 2003).
Price: $40. http://www.epic.org/bookstore/pls2003

The "Physicians Desk Reference of the privacy world."  An invaluable
resource for students, attorneys, researchers and journalists who need
an up-to-date collection of U.S. and International privacy law, as
well as a comprehensive listing of privacy resources.


"Filters and Freedom 2.0: Free Speech Perspectives on Internet Content
Controls" (EPIC 2001). Price: $20.

A collection of essays, studies, and critiques of Internet content
filtering.  These papers are instrumental in explaining why filtering
threatens free expression.


"The Consumer Law Sourcebook 2000: Electronic Commerce and the Global
Economy," Sarah Andrews, editor (EPIC 2000). Price: $40.

The Consumer Law Sourcebook provides a basic set of materials for
consumers, policy makers, practitioners and researchers who are
interested in the emerging field of electronic commerce.  The focus is
on framework legislation that articulates basic rights for consumers
and the basic responsibilities for businesses in the online economy.


"Cryptography and Liberty 2000: An International Survey of Encryption
Policy," Wayne Madsen and David Banisar, authors (EPIC 2000). Price:
$20.  http://www.epic.org/bookstore/crypto00&
EPIC's third survey of encryption policies around the world.  The
results indicate that the efforts to reduce export controls on strong
encryption products have largely succeeded, although several
governments are gaining new powers to combat the perceived threats of
encryption to law enforcement.


EPIC publications and other books on privacy, open government, free
expression, crypto and governance can be ordered at:

     EPIC Bookstore

     "EPIC Bookshelf" at Powell's Books

EPIC also publishes EPIC FOIA Notes, which provides brief summaries
of interesting documents obtained from government agencies under the
Freedom of Information Act.

     Subscribe to EPIC FOIA Notes at:

[8] Upcoming Conferences and Events

Smart IDs: A Smart Idea? July 15, 2005. National Academies, Washington,
DC. For more information: (Media Contact) Office of News and Public
Information, 202-334-2138. (Other Inquiries) Jason Leith, Science &
Policy Fellow, 202-334-3223; e-mail: jleith@nas.edu

PEP05: UM05 Workshop on Privacy-Enhanced Personalization. July 25, 2005.
Edinburgh, Scotland.  For more information:

National Driver's License Strategy Meeting.  July 27, 2005. Washington,
DC. Travel scholarships for state and local organizations are available.
For more information: http://www.nilc.org/trainings/

3rd International Human.Society@Internet Conference.  July 27-29,
2005.  Tokyo, Japan.  For more information: http://hsi.itrc.net/

Access to Information: Analyzing the State of the Law.  Riley
Information Services. September 8, 2005. Ottawa, Ontario. For more
information: http://www.rileyis.com/seminars/ 5th Annual Future of Music Policy Summit. Future of Music Coalition.
September 11-13, 2005. Washington DC. For more information:
http://www.futureofmusic.org/events/summit05/ Conference On Passenger Facilitation & Immigration: Newest trends in achieving a seamless experience in air travel International Air Transport Association (IATA) and Singapore Aviation Academy (SAA) October 3-5, 2005 Singapore Aviation Academy. For more information: http://www.saa.com.sg/conf_pax_fac/ Public Voice Symposium: "Privacy and Data Protection in Latin America -
Analysis and Perspectives." Launch of the first Spanish version of
"Privacy and Human Rights." October 20-21, 2005, Auditorio Alberto
Lleras Camargo de la Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia.
Organizers: Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), Grupo de
Estudios en Internet, Comercio Electrónico, Telecomunicaciones e
Informática (GECTI), Law School of the Universidad de los Andes, Bogota,
Colombia, Computer Professional for Social Responsibility-Peru
(CPSR-Perú). For more information:
http://www.thepublicvoice.org/events/bogota05/ 6th Annual Privacy and Security Workshop. Centre for Innovation Law and Policy (University of Toronto) and the Center for Applied Cryptographic Research (University of Waterloo). November 3-4, 2005. University of Toronto. For more information: http://www.cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/conferences/2005/psw/announcement.html The World Summit on the Information Society. Government of Tunisia. November 16-18, 2005. Tunis, Tunisia. For more information: http://www.itu.int/wsis/ Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Meeting. November 30-December 4, 2005. Vancouver, Canada. For more information: http://www.icann.org/ ====================================================================== Subscription Information ====================================================================== Subscribe/unsubscribe via web interface: https://mailman.epic.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/epic_news Back issues are available at: http://www.epic.org/alert The EPIC Alert displays best in a fixed-width font, such as Courier. ====================================================================== Privacy Policy ====================================================================== The EPIC Alert mailing list is used only to mail the EPIC Alert and to send notices about EPIC activities. We do not sell, rent or share our mailing list. We also intend to challenge any subpoena or other legal process seeking access to our mailing list. We do not enhance (link to other databases) our mailing list or require your actual name. In the event you wish to subscribe or unsubscribe your e-mail address from this list, please follow the above instructions under "subscription information." ====================================================================== About EPIC ====================================================================== The Electronic Privacy Information Center is a public interest research center in Washington, DC. It was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging privacy issues such as the Clipper Chip, the Digital Telephony proposal, national ID cards, medical record privacy, and the collection and sale of personal information. EPIC publishes the EPIC Alert, pursues Freedom of Information Act litigation, and conducts policy research. For more information, see http://www.epic.org or write EPIC, 1718 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. +1 202 483 1140 (tel), +1 202 483 1248 (fax). If you'd like to support the work of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, contributions are welcome and fully tax-deductible. Checks should be made out to "EPIC" and sent to 1718 Connecticut Ave., NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20009. Or you can contribute online at: http://www.epic.org/donate Your contributions will help support Freedom of Information Act and First Amendment litigation, strong and effective advocacy for the right of privacy and efforts to oppose government regulation of encryption and expanding wiretapping powers. Thank you for your support. ---------------------- END EPIC Alert 12.14 ---------------------- .