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   Volume 5.19	                                December 10, 1998
                            Published by the
              Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
                            Washington, D.C.
                         50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE
Table of Contents
[1] UDHR Celebrates 50th Anniversary
[2] ACTION I: Help Free Two Jailed Chinese Scientists
[3] GILC Statement on UDHR 50th Anniversary
[4] GILC Online Resources
[5] HRW on Freedom of Expression on the Internet
[6] ACTION II: Support Free Crypto
[7] EPIC Bookstore - Focus on Human Rights
[8] Upcoming Conferences and Events
[1] UDHR Celebrates 50th Anniversary
  "Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and
   inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the
   foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world . . ."
     - The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
In 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  The UDHR set out the
fundamental freedoms that the nations of the world agreed to observe
in the aftermath of the second world war.  The UDHR also established
the foundation for many important treaties, agreements, and
institutions that were later created to protect human rights.
Two provisions of the UDHR are of particular importance to the
Internet community.  Fifty years ago the drafters of the Universal
Declaration recognized that the protection of privacy and the freedom
of expression are essential rights that all governments must respect.
Article 12 states:
    No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his
    privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon
    his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the
    protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Article 19 says:
    Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression;
    this right includes freedom to hold opinions without
    interference and to seek, receive and impart information and
    ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
Today the rights set out in the UDHR are still under attack, as the
report from Human Rights Watch excerpted below points out. Across the
globe, governments threaten essential freedoms and basic human rights.
The Internet -- and more precisely the ability of people to make use
of this new communications technology -- is also under attack.
Scientists in China are jailed for sending email.  Governments are
developing new controls that would prevent journalists, human rights
organizers, and political opponents from engaging in private
Take a moment today to show your support for human rights.  Read the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Send an email in support of the
DFN campaign.  Sign up with FreeCrypto.
We dedicate this issue of the EPIC Alert to the spirit of freedom,
justice, and peace embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human
Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
[2]  ACTION I: Help Free Two Jailed Chinese Scientists
The Digital Freedom Network has announced a campaign to free a Chinese
Engineer and Physicist.  From the DFN Action Alert 98-010, December
10, 1998):
	On a day when most countries are celebrating the 50th
	anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
	software engineer Lin Hai and physicist and dissident Wang
	Youcai sit in jail for using the Internet to support democracy
	in China.
	A group of 13 free speech and scientific organizations has
	initiated an e-mail appeal campaign on behalf of Lin Hai and
	Wang Youcai. We encourage other groups to share this alert
	with their constituencies.
	Lin Hai was arrested on March 25, 1998 for providing 30,000
	Chinese e-mail addresses to VIP Reference, which publishes a
	pro-democracy newsletter described by Chinese prosecutors as a
	"hostile foreign publication." U.S.-based VIP Reference
	distributes reports on dissident activities, human rights, and
	other issues to more than 250,000 e-mail addresses in China.
	Lin Hai has been charged with "inciting to overthrow state
	power." His trial was conducted in secret in Shanghai on
	December 4; the verdict is expected to be announced soon.
	Lin's arrest has been described as evidence that the Chinese
	government is determined to prevent freedom of information on
	the Internet from posing a challenge to its leadership.
	Wang Youcai, a leader of the 1989 pro-democracy
	demonstrations, is scheduled to go to trial on December 17 in
	the Hangzhou Intermediate Court on the charge of "inciting to
	overthrow state power." Among his crimes is sending e-mail
	messages to dissidents in the U.S. Wang was arrested in July
	for trying to organize an opposition party. He was then
	released and put under house arrest. He was detained again on
	November 2 and formally charged on November 30. What can you
	Send e-mail or fax messages:
	calling for the immediate and unconditional release of Lin Hai
	and Wang Youcai on the grounds that they were arrested solely
	for exercising their internationally recognized rights to
	freedom of expression and association; and   urging Chinese
	officials to cease their interference with electronic
	You can note in your letter that:
	(1) More than one million Chinese citizens reportedly have
	access to the Internet. The government encourages this access
	to promote national development while, at the same time,
	fighting to control its use for political purposes.
	(2) The arrests of Lin Hai and Wang Youcai constitute serious
	violations of international human rights standards enumerated
	in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was
	adopted without opposition by the United Nations General
	Assembly on December 10, 1948. They include:
	everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of
	person (Article 3);   no one shall be subjected to arbitrary
	arrest, detention or exile (Article 9);   everyone has the
	right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right
	includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to
	seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any
	media regardless of frontiers (Article 19); and   everyone has
	the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association
	(Article 20).
Please consult the DFN pages below for more information on this
The campaign is supported by the Science and Human Rights Program of
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the
Association for Computing Machinery, the Center for Democracy and
Technology, the Committee of Concerned Scientists, the Committee on
the International Freedom of Scientists of the American Physical
Society, Cyber-Rights & Cyber-Liberties (UK), Derechos Human Rights,
the Digital Freedom Network, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the
Electronic Privacy Information Center, Human Rights in China, the New
York Academy of Sciences' Committee on Human Rights, and VIP
Reference.  We encourage other groups to share this alert with their
DFN Campaign Page:
DFN Press Release:
[3] GILC Statement on UDHR 50th Anniversary
GILC Statement on the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights
"Fifty years ago, the nations of the world affirmed their commitment
to protect and promote human rights in the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights. Understanding that "recognition of the inherent
dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of
the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in
the world," the nations of the world committed themselves to protect
the rights of privacy, equality, human dignity and freedom of
speech. As we approach the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, it is essential that the international
community reassert its commitment to respect and promote human
rights regardless of physical borders.
"The rights cemented in the UDHR are as essential, and as threatened,
today as they were fifty years ago. The undersigned organizations,
members of the Global Internet Liberty Campaign, would like to
remind the citizen nations of the world of the guarantees of freedom
of expression and privacy enshrined in the UDHR.
"Article 19 of the UDHR provides that 'Everyone has the right to
freedom of opinion and expression...through any media and regardless
of frontiers.' However, governments continue to restrict expression
on the Internet. In China, software dealer Lin Hai is awaiting
sentencing for releasing 30,000 email addresses to a dissident group
in the United States. Civil rights groups in the United States are
fighting a court battle against a law dubbed Communications Decency
Act II, which would restrict access by adults to online content.
"Although Article 12 of the UDHR states that "No one shall be
subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy..." governments
around the world seek to monitor and intercept communications on the
Internet and elsewhere. Recently, under pressure from the United
States, 33 countries in Europe, North America, Asia, and South
America agreed to limit the exportation of mass-market software that
would protect the privacy of Internet users. This software, which
scrambles data so that it can only be read by its intended
recipient, is widely used by human rights groups, including GILC
members, to ensure the safety and integrity of sensitive
information. In Singapore, all Internet service providers (ISPs) are
controlled directly or indirectly by the government and in Russia, a
proposal is being debated to connect all ISPs via a black box to the
Federal Security Service to monitor all Internet communications.
"The Internet holds the promise of being the greatest tool for
communication and freedom of expression. The undersigned members of
GILC encourage the governments of the world to recognize and promote
this potential in accordance with the principles of the UDHR. The
undersigned members of GILC also encourage the governments of the
world to avoid restrictions on any software that protects the
privacy of an individual's communications."
       American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
       Bulgarian Institute for Legal Development
       Center for Democracy and Technology
       Derechos Human Rights
       Digital Freedom Network (DFN)
       Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
       Electronic Frontiers Australia
       FrEE (Electronic Frontiers Spain)
       Electronic Frontiers Texas
       Electronic Privacy Information Center
       Equipo Nizkor
       Förderverein Informationstechnik und Gesellschaft (FITUG)
       Human Rights Watch
       Imaginons un Réseau Internet Solidaire (IRIS)
       Index on Censorship
       Liberty (National Council of Civil Liberties)
       Privacy International
       quintessenz e-zine
[4] GILC Online Resources
The Global Internet Liberty Campaign was established in 1996 to promote
freedom and protect liberty in the online world.  Today more than 50
organizations in 20 countries support the ongoing work of GILC.
The Global Internet Liberty Campaign advocates:
	Prohibiting prior censorship of on-line communication.
	Requiring that laws restricting the content of on-line speech
	distinguish between the liability of content providers and the
	liability of data carriers.
	Insisting that on-line free expression not be restricted by
	indirect means such as excessively restrictive governmental or
	private controls over computer hardware or software,
	telecommunications infrastructure, or other essential
	components of the Internet.
	Including citizens in the Global Information Infrastructure
	(GII) development process from countries that are currently
	unstable economically, have insufficient infrastructure, or
	lack sophisticated technology.
	Prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex,
	language, religion, political or other opinion, national or
	social origin, property, birth or other status.
	Ensuring that personal information generated on the GII for
	one purpose is not used for an unrelated purpose or disclosed
	without the person's informed consent and enabling individuals
	to review personal information on the Internet and to correct
	inaccurate information.
	Allowing on line users to encrypt their communications and
	information without restriction.
We invite you -- our fellow users from around the world who are
interested in taking concerted action to protect the Internet -- to
join us in this campaign.
GILC Home Page:
GILC Members:
GILC Presswire:
GILC Actions:
GILC Issues Pages:
[5] HRW on Freedom of Expression on the Internet
The 1999 World Report of Human Rights Watch contains a special section
on Freedom of Expression and the Internet.  From the HRW report:
	Despite growing acknowledgment during 1998 among governments
	around the world that the Internet promotes participation in
	civil and political life within countries and beyond,
	legislative proposals continued to threaten free speech on the
	Internet. While dissidents in authoritarian countries
	continued to take risks using the Internet to seek help and
	information, regulators in these parts of the world were quick
	to refine screening and other controlling technologies. As a
	result, in a half-dozen countries, Internet access providers
	(including public libraries) were implementing filtering
	technologies and other voluntary measures to make prior
	censorship of on-line communications a reality. The trend is
	towards extending these technologies more broadly, with global
	implications for free expression. On-line content providers
	may soon be forced to start rating their content; those
	failing to rate their content may find their material blocked
	from public access. As local rating criteria are used to
	define ratings, the danger is that these restrictive criteria
	will limit the diversity of expression on the Internet, where
	content is as diverse as human thought.
	In October 1997 the European Parliament had consented, in
	principle, to the use of filtering and screening devices.
	Subsequently the European Commission requested to the European
	Parliament to foster research into technical issues, in
	particular filtering, rating, and tracing techniques, taking
	into account Europe's cultural and linguistic diversity.
	Ironically, authoritarian regimes around the world were soon to
	implement these techniques and principles to restrict free
	expression on the Internet.
	For example, Singapore's National Internet Advisory Committee
	(NIAC) in its September 1998 report recommended that the local
	industry be required to label Web sites using PICS (Platform
	for Internet Content Selection)- compliant content rating
	classification systems, such as that developed by the
	Recreational Software Advisory Council (RSAC). Implementing
	this would mean that unrated sites would be automatically
	blocked. Even if this system were only adopted in Singapore,
	all unrated Web sites around the world would be blocked when
	the system was used.
The report looks also at threats to Free Expression in Saudi Arabia,
Bahrain, Thailand, China, Malaysia, Turkey, the United Kingdom,
Russia, Australia, and the United States.  The report also noted
efforts to control the use of encryption and said that "the current
push for restricted access to cryptography may make the use of freely
available software like PGP illegal or impossible for human rights
groups from developing countries and in the long term even by
nongovernmental groups in the most developed countries."
Human Rights Watch World Report 1999, "Freedom of Expression on the
Human Rights Watch World Report 1999:
[6] ACTION II: Support Free Crypto
A little more than a week ago, government officials meeting secretly
in Vienna revised an international agreement that concerns the export
of munitions in an attempt to establish new controls on the use and
development of encryption products.  In so doing, they are attempting
to reverse efforts to promote good techniques to protect privacy that
have been backed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD) and the Ministers of the EU Member Countries.  The
Wassenaar delegates have also turned their backs of the rights of
citizens and the freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights.
Now it's time to fight back.  A new web-based campaign makes it
possible to send a fax message to your political leaders to ask that
new controls on encryption not be established.  EPIC urges you to
visit the FreeCrypto web site and express your support for this
The FreeCrypto campaign focuses on the following arguments against
	- Strong cryptography is the only way to protect the
        contents of private and confidential communications.
	- The right to privacy is guaranteed by the Universal
        Declaration of Human Rights, which is currently
        celebrating its 50th anniversary.
	- Strong cryptographic software is already widely
        available throughout the world.
	- The regulations impose unnecessary constraints and
        costs on business while doing little to achieve their aim
        of restricting availability of cryptographic software.
	- No objective case for the benefits of imposing such
        controls has been made public.
	- The restrictions on deployment of strong cryptography
        increase the risk of criminal or terrorist attack on vital
        infrastructures such as banking and electricity supply.
Take a moment, visit the FreeCrypto web site, and send a message.
Free Crypto Web Site:
GILC Report, "Cryptography and Liberty: An International Survey of
Encryption Policy":
Internet Privacy Coalition:
[7] EPIC Bookstore - Focus on Human Rights
Human Rights in the World Community: Issues and Action by Richard P.
Claude (Editor), Burns H. Weston (Editor).
A compilation of the best analytical work of leading scholars and
activists in the field of international human rights designed for
educational use.
(University of Pennsylvania Press, $24.95 list).
States of Injustice: A Guide to Human Rights and Civil Liberties in
the European Union by Michael Spencer.
A concise guide to human rights and civil liberties in the European
Union on issues such as surveillance and data protection,
(Pluto Press, $22.95 List)
Also available at the EPIC Bookstore, books on civil liberties,
privacy, free speech, and government accountability, as well
as videos and DVDs:
 - "1984" (with John Hurt and Richard Burton)
 - "The Tin Drum" (based on the novel by Gunter Grass)
 - "Brazil" (with Robert DeNiro)
 - "War Games" (Matthew Broderick)
 - "Gattaca" (Ethan Hawke and Uma Thurman)
These films and lots of good books on civil liberties are available
for purchase online at the EPIC Bookstore:
Give a book (or film) on civil liberties this holiday season!
[8] Upcoming Conferences and Events
Computer Ethics. Philosophical Enquiry 98 (CEPE'98). December 14-15.
London, UK. Sponsored by ACMSIGCAS and London School of Economics.
1999 RSA Data Security Conference. January 18-21, 1999. San Jose, CA.
Sponsored by RSA. Contact: http://www.rsa.com/conf99/
FC '99  Third Annual Conference on Financial Cryptography. February
22-25, 1999. Anguilla, B.W.I. Contact: http://fc99.ai/
Electronic Commerce and Privacy Legislation -- Building Trust and
Confidence. February 23, 1999.  Ottawa, Canada. Sponsored by Riley
Information Services. http://www.rileyis.com/seminars/Feb99/
"CYBERSPACE 1999: Crime, Criminal Justice and the Internet". 29 & 30
March 1999. York, UK. Sponsored by the British and Irish Legal
Education Technology Association (BILETA). http://www.bileta.ac.uk/
Computers, Freedom and Privacy (CFP) '99. April 6-8, 1999. Washington,
DC. Sponsored by ACM. Contact: info@cfp99.org.
1999 EPIC Cryptography and Privacy Conference. June 7, 1999.
Washington, DC. Sponsored by EPIC. Contact: info@epic.org.
Cryptography & International Protection of Human Rights  (CIPHR'99).
9-13 August 1999. Lake Balaton, Hungary. Contact:
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The Electronic Privacy Information Center is a public interest research
center in Washington, DC.  It was established in 1994 to focus public
attention on emerging privacy issues such as the Clipper Chip, the
Digital Telephony proposal, national ID cards, medical record privacy,
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Thank you for your support.
  ---------------------- END EPIC Alert 5.19 -----------------------

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