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HR 850 IH


1st Session

H. R. 850

To amend title 18, United States Code, to affirm the rights of United States persons to use and sell encryption and to relax export controls on encryption.


February 25, 1999

Mr. GOODLATTE (for himself, Ms. LOFGREN, Mr. ARMEY, Mr. DELAY, Mr. WATTS of Oklahoma, Mr. DAVIS of Virginia, Mr. COX, Ms. PRYCE of Ohio, Mr. BLUNT, Mr. GEPHARDT, Mr. BONIOR, Mr. FROST, Ms. DELAURO, Mr. LEWIS of Georgia, Mr. GEJDENSON, Mr. SENSENBRENNER, Mr. GEKAS, Mr. COBLE, Mr. SMITH of Texas, Mr. GALLEGLY, Mr. BRYANT, Mr. CHABOT, Mr. BARR of Georgia, Mr. HUTCHINSON, Mr. PEASE, Mr. CANNON, Mr. ROGAN, Mrs. BONO, Mr. BACHUS, Mr. CONYERS, Mr. FRANK of Massachusetts, Mr. BOUCHER, Mr. NADLER, Ms. JACKSON-LEE of Texas, Ms. WATERS, Mr. MEEHAN, Mr. DELAHUNT, Mr. WEXLER, Mr. ACKERMAN, Mr. ANDREWS, Mr. ARCHER, Mr. BALLENGER, Mr. BARCIA, Mr. BARRETT of Nebraska, Mr. BARRETT of Wisconsin, Mr. BARTON of Texas, Mr. BILBRAY, Mr. BLUMENAUER, Mr. BOEHNER, Mr. BRADY of Texas, Mr. BRADY of Pennsylvania, Ms. BROWN of Florida, Mr. BROWN of California, Mr. BURR of North Carolina, Mr. BURTON of Indiana, Mr. CAMP, Mr. CAMPBELL, Mrs. CAPPS, Mr. CHAMBLISS, Mrs. CHENOWETH, Mrs. CHRISTIAN-CHRISTENSEN, Mrs. CLAYTON, Mr. CLEMENT, Mr. CLYBURN, Mr. COLLINS, Mr. COOK, Mr. COOKSEY, Mrs. CUBIN, Mr. CUMMINGS, Mr. CUNNINGHAM, Mr. DAVIS of Illinois, Mr. DEAL of Georgia, Mr. DEFAZIO, Mr. DEUTSCH, Mr. DICKEY, Mr. DOOLEY of California, Mr. DOOLITTLE, Mr. DOYLE, Mr. DREIER, Mr. DUNCAN, Ms. DUNN, Mr. EHLERS, Mrs. EMERSON, Mr. ENGLISH, Ms. ESHOO, Mr. EWING, Mr. FARR of California, Mr. FILNER, Mr. FORD, Mr. FOSSELLA, Mr. FRANKS of New Jersey, Mr. GILLMOR, Mr. GOODE, Mr. GOODLING, Mr. GORDON, Mr. GREEN of Texas, Mr. GUTKNECHT, Mr. HALL of Texas, Mr. HASTINGS of Washington, Mr. HERGER, Mr. HILL of Montana, Mr. HOBSON, Mr. HOEKSTRA, Mr. HOLDEN, Ms. HOOLEY of Oregon, Mr. HORN, Mr. HOUGHTON, Mr. INSLEE, Mr. ISTOOK, Mr. JACKSON of Illinois, Mr. JEFFERSON, Ms. EDDIE BERNICE JOHNSON of Texas, Mrs. JOHNSON of Connecticut, Mr. KANJORSKI, Mr. KASICH, Mrs. KELLY, Ms. KIKPATRICK, Mr. KIND, Mr. KINGSTON, Mr. KNOLLENBERG, Mr. KOLBE, Mr. LAMPSON, Mr. LARGENT, Mr. LATHAM, Ms. LEE, Mr. LEWIS of Kentucky, Mr. LINDER, Mr. LUCAS of Oklahoma, Mr. LUTHER, Ms. MCCARTHY of Missouri, Mr. MCDERMOTT, Mr. MCGOVERN, Mr. MCINTOSH, Mr. MALONEY of Connecticut, Mr. MANZULLO, Mr. MARKEY, Mr. MARTINEZ, Mr. MATSUI, Mrs. MEEK of Florida, Mr. METCALF, Mr. MICA, Ms. MILLENDER-MCDONALD, Mr. GEORGE MILLER of California, Mr. MOAKLEY, Mr. MORAN of Virginia, Mrs. MORELLA, Mrs. MYRICK, Mrs. NAPOLITANO, Mr. NEAL of Massachusetts, Mr. NETHERCUTT, Mr. NORWOOD, Mr. NUSSLE, Mr. OLVER, Mr. PACKARD, Mr. PALLONE, Mr. PASTOR, Mr. PETERSON of Minnesota, Mr. PICKERING, Mr. POMBO, Mr. POMEROY, Mr. PRICE of North Carolina, Mr. QUINN, Mr. RADANOVICH, Mr. RAHALL, Mr. RANGEL, Mr. REYNOLDS, Ms. RIVERS, Mr. ROHRABACHER, Ms. ROS-LEHTINEN, Mr. RUSH, Mr. SALMON, Ms. SANCHEZ, Mr. SANDERS, Mr. SANFORD, Mr. SCARBOROUGH, Mr. SCHAFFER, Mr. SESSIONS, Mr. SHAYS, Mr. SHERMAN, Mr. SHIMKUS, Mr. SMITH of Washington, Mr. SMITH of New Jersey, Mr. SOUDER, Ms. STABENOW, Mr. STARK, Mr. SUNUNU, Mr. TANNER, Mrs. TAUSCHER, Mr. TAUZIN, Mr. TAYLOR of North Carolina, Mr. THOMAS, Mr. THOMPSON of Mississippi, Mr. THUNE, Mr. TIAHRT, Mr. TIERNEY, Mr. UPTON, Mr. VENTO, Mr. WALSH, Mr. WAMP, Mr. WATKINS, Mr. WELLER, Mr. WHITFIELD, Mr. WICKER, Ms. WOOLSEY, and Mr. WU) introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary, and in addition to the Committee on International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned


To amend title 18, United States Code, to affirm the rights of United States persons to use and sell encryption and to relax export controls on encryption.




    `2801. Definitions.

    `2802. Freedom to use encryption.

    `2803. Freedom to sell encryption.

    `2804. Prohibition on mandatory key escrow.

    `2805. Unlawful use of encryption in furtherance of a criminal act.

`Sec. 2801. Definitions

`Sec. 2802. Freedom to use encryption

`Sec. 2803. Freedom to sell encryption

`Sec. 2804. Prohibition on mandatory key escrow

`Sec. 2805. Unlawful use of encryption in furtherance of a criminal act



integrity, or authenticity of, and prevent unauthorized recipients from accessing or altering, such communications or information;

    `(ii) the terms `wire communication' and `electronic communication' have the meanings given those terms in section 2510 of title 18, United States Code;

    `(B) the term `generally available' means, in the case of computer hardware or computer software (including computer hardware or computer software with encryption capabilities)--

      `(i) computer hardware or computer software that is--
        `(I) distributed through the Internet;

        `(II) offered for sale, license, or transfer to any person without restriction, whether or not for consideration, including, but not limited to, over-the-counter retail sales, mail order transactions, phone order transactions, electronic distribution, or sale on approval;

        `(III) preloaded on computer hardware or computing devices that are widely available for sale to the public; or

        `(IV) assembled from computer hardware or computer software components that are widely available for sale to the public;

      `(ii) not designed, developed, or tailored by the manufacturer for specific purchasers or users, except that any such purchaser or user may--

        `(I) supply certain installation parameters needed by the computer hardware or software to function properly with the computer system of the user or purchaser; or

        `(II) select from among options contained in the computer hardware or computer software; and

      `(iii) with respect to which the manufacturer of that computer hardware or computer software--

        `(I) intended for the user or purchaser, including any licensee or transferee, to install the computer hardware or software and has supplied the necessary instructions to do so, except that the manufacturer of the computer hardware or software, or any agent of such manufacturer, may also provide telephone or electronic mail help line services for installation, electronic transmission, or basic operations; and

        `(II) the computer hardware or software is designed for such installation by the user or purchaser without further substantial support by the manufacturer;

    `(C) the term `computing device' means a device which incorporates one or more microprocessor-based central processing units that can accept, store, process, or provide output of data;

    `(D) the term `computer hardware' includes, but is not limited to, computer systems, equipment, application-specific assemblies, smart cards, modules, integrated circuits, and printed circuit board assemblies;

    `(E) the term `customer premises equipment' means equipment employed on the premises of a person to originate, route, or terminate communications;

    `(F) the term `technical assistance' includes instruction, skills training, working knowledge, consulting services, and the transfer of technical data;

    `(G) the term `technical data' includes blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulas, tables, engineering designs and specifications, and manuals and instructions written or recorded on other media or devices such as disks, tapes, or read-only memories; and

    `(H) the term `technical review' means a review by the Secretary of computer hardware or software or computing devices with encryption capabilities, based on information about the product's encryption capabilities supplied by the manufacturer, that the computer hardware or software or computing device works as represented.'.



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