EPIC Student Privacy Project
Students do not shed all of their rights at the schoolhouse gate, including the right to privacy. Although recent Supreme Court decisions have diminished this right, there are substantial federal and state protections for the privacy of students' educational records. The most prominent of the federal protections for student privacy is the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), also known as the "Buckley Amendment," FERPA protects the confidentiality of student records to some extent, while also giving students the right to review their own records.
Congress does not always expand privacy when it addresses the collection of student information. Another provision of No Child Left Behind mandates that high schools turn over student contact information to military recruiters, unless parents or students explicitly opt out of such disclosure. And in 2002, Congress amended FERPA, via the USA PATRIOT Act, to require schools to transmit information about immigrant students to the INS. Under this program, the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System, schools had to begin in 2003 reporting immigrants' academic information, such as disciplinary actions or changes in programs of study.
- Government Breaches Continue, Hacker Compromises more than 130,000 Navy Records: In the latest government data breach, the Navy reported that a hacker gathered the personal data of more than 130,000 current and former sailors from a laptop that belonged to a government contractor. Government security vulnerabilities are on the rise. In 2015, the records of more than 21 million federal workers, friends and family members were breached. In 2016, EPIC urged candidates for office to focus on "data protection." EPIC has warned that inaccurate, insecure, and overbroad government databases pose a risks to the safety of Americans. Earlier this year, EPIC urged the Dept. of Defense and Dept. of Homeland Security to drop proposals to expand government databases that lacked adequate privacy safeguards. (Nov. 29, 2016)
- Massachusetts Court Upholds Privacy Rights of Cell Phone Users: The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled today in Commonwealth v. White that the Fourth Amendment prohibits law enforcement from seizing a cell phone based simply on an officer’s suspicion that a cell phone may be used in a crime, finding that a warrant must be obtained prior to the seizure of the phone. EPIC filed an amicus brief in the case, arguing that "digital is different," and therefore the legal standard for warrantless searches of contraband in schools does not apply to cell phones. EPIC also explained the significance of Riley v. California, the recent Supreme Court that established a warrant requirement for searches of cell phones. The EPIC State Policy Project coordinated the EPIC amicus brief in the case. (Sep. 28, 2016)
- EPIC Urges Wisconsin Legislature to Safeguard Student Privacy + (Aug. 17, 2016)
- States Adopt New Student Privacy Safeguards + (Jun. 21, 2016)
- EPIC, Coalition Petitions Education Department for Data Security Rules for Student Records + (Jun. 6, 2016)
- Senator Franken Presses Google on Student Privacy + (Jan. 16, 2016)
- EPIC Warns Education Department of Research Database Privacy Risks + (Jan. 6, 2016)
- Congress Calls on Education Department to Protect Student Privacy + (Dec. 14, 2015)
- Massachusetts Court Hears Arguments in Student Privacy Case + (Dec. 9, 2015)
- In Court: EPIC Urges Massachusetts to Protect Student Privacy + (Nov. 23, 2015)
- Congress Explores Risk of Student Record Data Breach + (Nov. 19, 2015)
- Tech Funding Bills Could Upgrade Student Privacy + (Nov. 4, 2015)
- Education Department Seeks Public Comment on Student Privacy Guidance + (Aug. 20, 2015)
- In the States: Delaware Enacts Several Privacy Laws + (Aug. 10, 2015)
- States Adopt Privacy Laws for Student Data, Breach Notification, License Plate Readers, and Drones + (Jul. 2, 2015)
- Senators Markey and Hatch Propose Student Privacy Act + (May. 13, 2015)
- EPIC Launches State Policy Project + (May. 5, 2015)
- House Members Introduce Student Privacy Bill + (Apr. 30, 2015)
- Congress Proposes Bipartisan Student Privacy Bill + (Apr. 23, 2015)
- EPIC Urges House to Safeguard Student Privacy + (Feb. 11, 2015)
- Congress to Hold Hearing on Student Privacy + (Feb. 5, 2015)
- President Obama Backs Student Privacy Law + (Jan. 12, 2015)
- EPIC Uncovers DOD Student Data Collection Procedures + (Nov. 26, 2014)
- EPIC Obtains New Documents About Lack of Student Privacy Enforcement + (Oct. 15, 2014)
- California Enacts Comprehensive Student Privacy Law + (Oct. 2, 2014)
- EPIC Urges FTC to Investigate Maricopa Data Breach + (Sep. 29, 2014)
- Education New York Urges Parents to Protect Student Privacy + (Sep. 8, 2014)
- Senators Markey and Hatch Introduce Student Privacy Legislation + (Jul. 30, 2014)
- EPIC Uncovers Complaints from Education Department about Misuse of Education Records + (Jul. 18, 2014)
- Federal Trade Commission Urges Court to Protect Student Privacy + (May. 29, 2014)
- EPIC Testifies on Student Privacy before California State Assembly + (May. 16, 2014)
- Senators Markey and Hatch Propose Student Privacy Legislation + (May. 15, 2014)
- Google Stops Scanning Student Emails, Ends Data Collection for Advertising + (Apr. 30, 2014)
- Amid Privacy Backlash, Student Data Firm Dissolves + (Apr. 21, 2014)
- Google Admits to Data-Mining Student Emails + (Mar. 19, 2014)
- After Weakening Privacy Law, Education Department Proposes "Best Practices" for Student Data + (Mar. 7, 2014)
- Senator Markey Outlines New Student Privacy Legislation at EPIC Event + (Jan. 14, 2014)
- Company Adds Encryption to Website After EPIC Files Complaint + (Dec. 19, 2013)
- EPIC Files Privacy Complaint to Protect Student Data + (Dec. 12, 2013)
- EPIC FOIA - EPIC Uncovers Information About Debt Collector Practices from Education Dept. + (Nov. 1, 2013)
- Senator Markey Investigates Student Data Disclosures + (Oct. 24, 2013)
- EPIC Urges Congress to Protect Student Privacy + (Oct. 10, 2013)
- Judge Rules that EPIC Lacks Standing to Challenge Education Department's Unlawful Regulations + (Oct. 1, 2013)
- EPIC to Defend Student Privacy Rights in Federal Court + (Jul. 23, 2013)
- EPIC Testifies Before Colorado Board on Student Privacy + (May. 21, 2013)
- EPIC Sues Education Department, Seeks Documents about Debt Collectors and Student Privacy + (Mar. 18, 2013)
- In Federal Court EPIC Defends Student Privacy + (Jan. 22, 2013)
- EPIC Supports Moratorium on RFID Student Tracking + (Aug. 21, 2012)
- EPIC Urges Education Department to Protect Student Privacy + (Jul. 31, 2012)
- EPIC Sues to Block Changes to Education Privacy Rules + (Feb. 29, 2012)
- Department of Education Issues Unlawful Regulations that Harm Student Privacy + (Dec. 5, 2011)
- Seventh Circuit Court Hears Oral Argument in Students' Privacy Case + (Sep. 30, 2011)
- EPIC Urges Seventh Circuit to Protect Students' Privacy Rights + (Jul. 21, 2011)
- EPIC Calls Proposed Student Privacy Exemptions "Unlawful" + (May. 23, 2011)
- Department of Education Plans to Disclose Confidential Student Data + (Apr. 8, 2011)
- Report Says School Officials At Fault in High School Spycam Episode + (May. 14, 2010)
- Supreme Court: Strip-Search of Teenager Violated Constitutional Rights + (Jun. 25, 2009)
- Supreme Court Hears Case on Strip-Search of Young Student by Schools Officials Looking for Advil + (Apr. 21, 2009)
- EPIC and Over 100 Groups Seek End to DOD Recruiting Database + (Oct. 18, 2005)
- Spotlight: Database Tracks Foreign Students, Visitors in United States. + (Sept. 9, 2005)
- EPIC Releases Memorandum on DOD Recruiting Database, Privacy Act Violations. + (Jul. 27, 2005)
- Recruiting Database Established in Violation of Privacy Act. + (Jun. 27, 2005)
- Groups: DOD Should Scrap Massive Database. + (Jun. 21, 2005)
- EPIC Objects to Student Data Matching. + (Dec. 21, 2004)
More top news
EPIC Student Privacy Project
Currently Featured Topics
- Student Privacy Bill of Rights
- Family Education Right to Privacy Act (FERPA)
- Student Profiling and Student Surveys
- Commonwealth v. White (Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, 2015)
- Chicago Tribune v. Univ. of Illinois (U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, 2011)
- EPIC v. Education Department - Private Debt Collector Privacy Act Compliance
- Department of Education FERPA Enforcement FOIA Request
- "Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records—"Impact Evaluation of Data-Driven Instruction Professional Development for Teachers" (January 4, 2016)
- "Study of Promising Features of Teacher Preparation Programs" New System of Records (July 30, 2012)
- Responding to a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking amending the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 ("FERPA") (RIN 1880-AA86) (May 23, 2011)
- Statement on "How Emerging Technology Affects Student Privacy" to House Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education (February 11, 2015)
- "Ensuring Student Privacy in the Digital Age," to California State Assembly Education Committee and Select Committee on Privacy (May 14, 2014)
- "Study Session regarding inBloom, Inc.," before Colorado State Board of Education (May 16, 2013).
- Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)
- Children and RFID Systems
- DOD Recruiting Database
- No Child Left Behind
- Student Privacy Case Law
- Department of Education's FERPA Web site.
- Department of Education's Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act Regulations.
- White House, FACT SHEET: Safeguarding American Consumers & Families (January 2015)
- Khaliah Barnes, Amassing Student Data and Dissipating Privacy Rights, EDUCAUSE (January 2013)
- Joel Reidenberg, et al., Privacy and Cloud Computing in Public Schools, Fordham Center on Law and Information Policy (2013).
- Recent Changes Affecting FERPA and PPRA, Department of Education, October 2002.
- Department of Education's Model Notification of Rights for Elementary and Secondary Students.
- Department of Education's Model Notification of Rights under FERPA for Post-secondary Institutions.
- Department of Education's Model Notification of Rights under FERPA for Directory Information.
- Department of Education's Model Notice and Consent/Opt-Out for Specific Activities under PPRA.
- Joint letter from Departments of Defense and Education Regarding Military Recruiter Access to Secondary Students, July 2003. (PDF file).
- Q&A Policy Guidance on Access to High School Student by Military Recruiters, Departments of Education and Defense.
- Report to the Nation: State Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act, Education Commission of the States.
- Guidance for School Districts on Student Education Records, Directory Information, Health Information and Other Privacy Provisions, National School Boards Association.
- NYCLU Guidance on the Military Recruiter Provision of No Child Left Behind.
- Recent Amendments to Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act Relating to Anti-Terrorism Activities, Department of Education, April 2002.
- SEVP Student and Exchange Visitor Program, Immigration and Naturalization Service.
- Students, American Civil Liberties Union.
- GAO Report on Commercial Activities in Schools, September 2000.
- Jennifer C. Wasson, FERPA in the Age of Computer Logging: School Discretion at the Cost of Student Privacy?, 81 N.C.L. Rev. 1348 (March 2003).
- Rebecca N. Cordero, Comment: No Expectation of Privacy: Should School Officials Be Able to Search Students' Lockers Without Any Suspicion of Wrongdoing? A Study of In Re Patrick Y. and its Effect on Maryland Public School Students, 31 U. Balt. L. Rev. 305, Spring 2002.
- Tamu K. Walton, Protecting Student Privacy: Reporting Campus Crimes as an Alternative to Disclosing Student Disciplinary Records, 77 Ind. L.J. 143, Winter 2002.
- Lynn M. Daggett, Bucking Up Buckley I: Making the Federal Student Records Statute Work, 46 Cath. U. L. Rev. 617, Spring 1997.
- David A. Banisar, Privacy of Education Records, Electronic Privacy Information Center, January 1994.
Military Access to Students and Student Information
Two laws were passed in 2001 which make it easier for military recruiters to access high school students' contact information. The laws changed schools' previous ability, under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), to choose to whom they would release such information.For more information about this issue, see EPIC's DOD Recruiting Database page.
Tracking and Managing Student Information
Although the No Child Left Behind Act explicitly prohibits the creation of a nationwide student database, the Act does set up requirements for collecting information from students that may encourage school districts and states to develop new ways to track students. The NCLB requires each state to create procedures for "facilitating the transfer of disciplinary records" to any school in which a student enrolls or seeks to enroll. (20 U.S.C.S. § 7165). NCLB also includes vast guidelines and requirements for monitoring student achievement. Schools, districts and states will link test scores to, for instance, information like race and socioeconomic status. Some states have created unique identifiers for all students that can carry many pieces of information, and some of these systems have raised the concern of groups like the ACLU.
- Recent State Policies and Activities for Storing and Using Data under NCLB, Education Commission of the States.
- No Child Left Behind Act Prohibition on Nationwide Database, Section 9531.
Federal Substance Abuse Records Laws: If a state law gives older minors the right to get treatment or counseling for substance abuse problems without parental consent, and school-based persons operate a program to provide that assistance, the federal laws require that any record in the student's file relating to the assistance be kept confidential—even from the minor's parents—unless the minor consents to a release.
Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS)
In January 2002, FERPA was amended to permit the Attorney General to obtain a court order to collect education records from schools for the purposes of investigating or prosecuting terrorism. The Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS), in conjunction with a number of other federal agencies, is currently in the initial stages of implementing the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS).
SEVIS is an Internet-based system that allows schools to transmit student information to the INS for purposes of tracking and monitoring non-immigrant and exchange students. Accessible information includes a student's personally identifiable information, admission at port of entry, disciplinary information, and academic information, such as changes in program of study. Schools will be required to transmit such information to the INS for the duration of a student's stay in the United States. The USA PATRIOT Act requires that SEVIS be fully implemented by January 1, 2003.
- USA PATRIOT Act, P.L. 107-56.
Campus Identification Cards
Many colleges and universities are employing identification cards that are used to access every facility or service on the campus. The goal of these cards is to create a seamless system where students can purchase items or access services with just one card.
These systems of identification pose new risks to privacy and autonomy. First, such systems can create a log of students' movements, which later can be accessed by police or other authorities. There is also the problem of malicious student or employee access, caused in part by institutional hiring of students for positions where they can access the personal data of other students. With ubiquitous campus identification schemes, student employees or others may use the data to stalk or harass other students and employees.
Second, it creates an infrastructure that allows dataveillance. Such systems can allow secondary use of location or consumption data, much like supermarket-shopping cards are used now to profile what individuals purchase at stores. These cards eliminate cash transactions, and in doing so, may tie identity to every transaction. For instance, Blackboard's student identification system notes that it:
"Provide you [sic] users with identification cards and track user data. All user profiles are stored in a central database, and user data can be imported from a variety of commercial Student Information Systems (SIS)".
NuVision Networks, Corp. markets their student identification system as one that can accommodate a number of campus activities, including student voting:
"Voting We've taken all the work out of college voting. With Campus Center it's easy to manage complex voting situations involving an unlimited number of specialized groups. Votes can be multiple choice or Yes/No, and since the actual tally is constantly displayed for each vote, there is really no need to post results. Student can watch the voting as it happens from any network computer.
One cannot take "all the work out" of voting. Electronic voting is an extremely complex topic that implicates risks to the secret ballot, and inference with the vote. Bryn Mawr Professor Rebecca Mercuri, a leading authority in electronic voting notes:
Fully electronic systems do not provide any way that the voter can truly verify that the ballot cast corresponds to that being recorded, transmitted, or tabulated. Any programmer can write code that displays one thing on a screen, records something else, and prints yet another result. There is no known way to ensure that this is not happening inside of a voting system.
Another service offered by Blackboard, "Bb One," allows off-campus use of campus identity cards. This system specifically allows direct marketing based on the identification system:
Bb One™ is a transaction-based outsourcing solution that enables the acceptance of the university ID card as a form of payment off-campus. Bb One provides students with a cashless, safe, and secure way to transact on and around campus while offering parents the assurance that their funds will be spent within a university-approved network. Blackboard develops a comprehensive off-campus merchant network on behalf of each university and manages every aspect of the program from merchant acquisition to merchant support. Participating merchants also benefit from access to a university-endorsed spending program and direct-to-student and parent marketing programs.
The security of these identification systems is also questionable. Most of the systems operate on Windows platforms, which are particularly vulnerable to malicious cracking. Furthermore, Blackboard Inc. has employed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act to stop two students from delivering a lecture on the security vulnerabilities of the cards.
Third, and most importantly, pervasive identification systems acclimatize students to the custom of carrying an identity card and using it for routine purposes. We do not live in a society where individuals are required to carry identification, but these systems essentially force students to do so. Campuses that employ these systems are likely to breed a generation of students who don't see the fundamental privacy risks that flow from eliminating anonymous systems, and from requiring individuals to carry credentials.
Campus Credit Card Marketing
Financial institutions are very aggressive in attracting student customers. New students generally have no debt, and little understanding of how credit cards and compound interest work. Many financial institutions actually have exclusive credit card marketing agreements on certain campuses, where the school profits from the issuance of credit cards to students. The pursuit of students after graduation is also privacy invasive, as alumni associations receive payment for selling personal information to the credit card companies.
- Prepared Statement of Dr. Robert D. Manning, Hearing on "The Role of FCRA in the Credit Granting Process," Before the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit, (June 12, 2003).
- Prepared Statement of Dr. Robert D. Manning, "Credit Cards on Campus: A Growing Collegiate Crisis or Benign Societal Trend?," expert testimony before the U.S. Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, hearing on "The Importance of Financial Literacy Among College Students," Dirksen Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C., (September 2002).
- Robert Manning, Credit Card Nation: The Consequences of America's Addiction to Credit, Basic Books, December 2000.
- Robert Manning, Credit Cards on Campus: Current Trends and Informational Deficiencies, 1999.
- Robert Manning, Credit Cards on Campus: Social Costs and Consequences of Student Debt, 1999.
- School district should offer five years' ID protection, Frederick News-Post, December 28, 2016
- Maryland Delegate Promises New Legislation in Wake of Student Data Breach, Government Technology, December 23, 2016
- Privacy advocates accuse Obama administration of failing to properly protect student data, Washington Post, June 7, 2016
- Google's student privacy policies called into question, Mountain View Voice, February 20, 2016
- UC-Berkeley students sue Google, alleging their emails were illegally scanned, The Washington Post, February 1, 2016
- Schools Turn to Digital Tools for Personalizing Career Searches, Education Week, January 11, 2016
- New student database slammed by EPIC, Washington Post, January 7, 2016
- Missourian Editorial: Student privacy protocols need an upgrade, Missourian, January 3, 2016
- Google, a ‘school official?’ This regulatory quirk can leave parents in the dark., Washington Post, December 30, 2015
- Google is tracking students as it sells more products to schools, privacy advocates warn, The Washington Post, December 29, 2015
- Schools, Government Agencies Move to Share Student Data, Education Week, October 19, 2015
- How one Austrian student took on American tech companies over privacy — and won, The Washington Post, October 19, 2015
- Tools for Tailored Learning May Expose Students’ Personal Details, New York Times, August 31, 2015
- Are School Districts Equipped to De-Identify Student Data?, Government Technology, August 28, 2015
- 'De-Identifying' Student Data Is Key for Protecting Privacy, Education Week, August 26, 2015
- Surveillance Society: Review shows few safeguards against student privacy leaks, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 24, 2015
- Surveillance Society: Students easy targets for data miners, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 20, 2015
- CCSD pushes to release deceased student's farewell notes, Las Vegas Review-Journal, July 31, 2015
- Protect Students from Corporate Data-Mining in the Classroom, National Review, June 30, 2015
- A bill aims to protect students’ digital information, Standard Examiner, June 19, 2015
- N.H. Student Data Privacy Law "One Of Most Comprehensive" In Nation, NHPR, June 5, 2015
- Student Data Privacy Legislation: What You Need to Know, Education World, June 3, 2015
- Their View: Hacking threat to PSU students is real, The Centre Daily, May 21, 2015
- The bipartisan bill that puts students back in control of their privacy, Deseret News, May 11, 2015
- Congress Schools Education Apps On Student Privacy, Buzzfeed News, May 1, 2015
- Congress receives bill to protect student privacy, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 30, 2015
- Activists, Companies Have Mixed Reaction to Proposed Student Privacy Law, Heartland Magazine, April 30, 2015
- Major FERPA Overhaul Under Consideration in U.S. House, Education Week, April 7, 2015
- "Privacy Bill May Fail Student Data Protection", U.S. News & World Report, March 24, 2015
- Bill Would Limit Use of Student Data, New York Times, March 23, 2015
- Bipartisan student data privacy bill hits House, The Hill, March 23, 2015
- "Optimism Returns to Student Data Privacy Debate", EdSurge, March 10, 2015
- Educators Welcome Proposal to Protect Students' Digital Privacy, The Chicago Tribune, January 19, 2015
- Obama Proposes Legislation on Data Breaches, Student Privacy, Washington Post, January 12, 2015
- Privacy Experts Laud Obama's Bid to Safeguard Student Data, FedScoop, January 12, 2015
- Obama Proposes New Protections for Student Data, Slate, January 12, 2015
- ClassDojo Adopts Deletion Policy for Student Data, New York Times, November 18, 2014
- Benjamin Herold, Google Under Fire for Data-Mining Student Email Messages, Education Week, Mar. 13, 2014
- Khaliah Barnes, Why a 'Student Privacy Bill of Rights' is Desperately Needed, Washington Post, Mar. 6, 2014
- Stacy Khadaroo, Data Breach at Indiana University: Are Colleges Being Targeted, Christian Science Monitor, Feb. 26, 2014
- Benjamin Herold, Education Leaders Tackle Student Data Privacy Issues at Summit, Education Week, Feb. 24, 2014
- Barbara Liston, Florida Lawmakers Push Bills Banning Biometric Scans of School Children, Chicago Tribune, Feb. 4, 2014
- David Nagel, Student Data Not a ‘Product’ To Be ‘Sold to the Highest Bidder’, The Journal, Jan. 14, 2014
- Ann Dornfeld, State Deal to Give Media Organizations Student Data Alarms Privacy Experts, KUOW.ORG, Dec. 19, 2013
- Ariel Bogle, Study: Student Data Not Safe in the Cloud, Slate, Dec. 16, 2013
- Molly Hensley-Clancy, U.S. Schools'; Approach to Student Data Threatens Privacy: Study, Reuters, Dec. 13, 2013
- Natasha Singer, Senator Raises Questions About Protecting Student Data, New York Times, Oct. 22, 2013
- Natasha Singer, Group Presses for Safeguards on the Personal Data of Schoolchildren, New York Times, Oct. 13, 2013
- Natasha Singer, Deciding Who Sees Students'; Data, New York Times, Oct. 5, 2013
- Sam Sanders, Students Find Ways to Hack School-Issued iPads Within a Week, Northwest Public Radio, Sept. 27, 2013
- Diane Ravitch, 3 Dubious Uses of Tech in Schools, Salon, Sept. 25, 2013
- David Kravets, Student Suspended for Refusing to Wear RFID Chip Returns to School, Wired, Aug. 22, 2013
- Todd Engdahl, Data Fears Aired Before State Board, ChalkBeat Colorado, May 16, 2013
- Valerie Strauss, Lawsuit Charges Ed Department with Violating Student Privacy Rights, The Washington Post, Mar. 13, 2013
- Chacour Koop, E-number Spreadsheet Leaked, Daily Eastern News, Jan. 23, 2013
- Margo Pierce, The Price of Free Cloud Resources, The Journal, Dec. 4, 2012
- Heather Sells, Big Brother? School District Tracks Kids with RFID, CBN News, October 9, 2012.
- Gazzang, Gazzang Recommends Five Tips to Protect Student Data in the Cloud, September 25, 2012.
- Bailey McGowan, Florida Colleges Ask Court to Revisit FERPA Case Involving Student Who Complained About Professor, Student Press Law Center, September 11, 2012.
- Student Data Will be Given to Military Recruiters, Morning Sentinel, August 22, 2012.
- Mark Boxley, University of Kentucky, Louisville Monitor Athletes' Tweets, USA Today, August 20, 2012.
- Francisco Vara-Orta, Students Will be Tracked via Chips in IDs, San Antonio Express-News, May 26, 2012.
- Lynn Stratton, Erosion of Privacy Reaches Schoolhouse St. Petersburg Times, July 25, 2004, at 7P.
- Recruiting Student Privacy, Los Angeles Times, April 18, 2004, at Part B, 1.
- Privacy Worries Dog Bill Designed to Track Students, The Union Leader (NH), March 24, 2004, at C10.
- Student IDs to Ease Transfers, But Privacy Fears Raised, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, January 24, 2004, at 1A.
- Union Likely to Test Student ID Program, Tulsa World, December 14, 2003, at A30.
- Erica Hill, Cyber rights... and wrongs, CNN, May 7, 2003.
- Fred Lohmann, New music rules are needed, Daily Princetonian, April 14, 2003.
- Julie Hilden, Should Universities Crack Down on File Swapping?, Findlaw.com, March 4, 2003.
- John Borland, Fingerprinting P2P pirates, CNET, February 20, 2003.
- Leonie Lamont, Recording Firms Ask To Scan University Computers, Sydney Morning Herald, February 19, 2003.
- Erika Hayasaki, Districts Taking on Recruiters, The Los Angeles Times, February 13, 2003.
- Tamar Lewin, Uncle Sam Wants Student Lists, and Schools Fret, The New York Times, January 29, 2003.
- Long Island "Educational Survey" Firm Agrees to Halt Deceptive Practices, New York Attorney General, January 29, 2003.
- Student Survey Companies Settle FTC Charges, FTC Press Release, January 29, 2003.
- Kendra Mayfield, FTC Eyes 'Educational' Marketers, Wired, January 3, 2003.
- S. David Brazer, They Have Brad's Name, Class and Phone Number, The Washington Post, December 22, 2002, at B2.
- Amy Harmon, Students Learning to Evade Moves to Protect Media Files, New York Times, November 27, 2002.
- Mary Shanklin, School Board votes 6-1 to share student names, Orlando Sentinel, October 9, 2002.
- High School Student Survey Companies Settle FTC Charges, FTC Press Release, October 2, 2002.
- With Court Nod, Parents Debate School Drug Tests, New York Times, September 29, 2002.
- Jayson Blair, Students' Privacy Records Found Outside City School, N.Y. Times, June 30, 2002.
- Mary Shanklin, District Handed Out Kids' Names, Orlando Sentinel, September 28, 2002, at A1.
- Robert Lemos, Secret Service Probes School Hackings, CNET News.com, June 20, 2002.
- Tracking Foreign Students, Editorial, N.Y. Times, June 17, 2002.
- Taming 'Animal House' students, Philadelphia Inquirer, May 31, 2002.
- Ohio Student Database Sparks Privacy Questions, Newsbytes, April 24, 2002.
- Taylor Loyal, Don't Leave College Without It Universities are cutting big-dollar deals with credit card companies, and students are paying the price, Mother Jones Magazine, March/April 2002.
- Reginald Fields, Students' personal data to go to state, Ohio Beacon Journal, April 19, 2002.
- State Supreme Court sides in favor of police roadblocks; it also allows schools to randomly test students for drugs, Indianapolis Star, March 6, 2002.
- Robert Gellman, Education statistics agency plays loose with privacy, Government Computer News, March 4, 2002.
- Daniel Golden, College-Survey Firm Quietly Peddles Student Information to Big Marketer, Wall Street Journal, December 3, 2001.
- Eric Hoover, The Lure of Easy Credit Leaves More Students Struggling With Debt, Chronicle of Higher Education, June 15, 2001.
- FERPA Fundamentalism: How a federal law designed to protect student privacy is being misinterpreted to injure press freedom, Student Press L. Center Rep., Vol. 22, No. 2, p. 35, Spring 2001.
- Education Department issues guidelines for release of campus court information, Student Press L. Center Rep., Vol. 21, No. 3, p. 4, Fall 2000.
- Credit Card Debt Imposes Huge Costs on Many College Students, Consumer Federation of America, June 8, 1999.
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Communications Law and Policy
Jerry Kang and Alan Butler